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Table 3 Processes for ensuring rigour in case-study analysis adapted from Gilson et al. (2012) [30]

From: Understanding the persistence of vertical (stand-alone) HIV clinics in the health system in Uganda: a qualitative synthesis of patient and provider perspectives

Prolonged engagement Multiple on-site visits were made to the case-study facilities. Investigators engaged in informal discussions with clinicians and HIV clinic managers as well as conducting formal, face-to-face interviews with multiple informants per health facility.
Use of theory This study draws upon the analytical framework by Shediac-Rizkallah & Bone (1998).
Case selection Sixteen health facilities which run a stand-alone HIV clinic were purposefully selected from a nationally-representative sample of 195 health facilities across Uganda participated in the pilot national ART roll-out phase.
Sampling We aimed to have a sample that had appropriate representation of health facility demographics in Uganda with respect to a) setting(rural/urban), b) ownership-type(public, for-profit, not-for-profit) c) Level of care(tertiary, secondary, primary).
Multiple methods Multiple methods were used including face-to-face interviews, a structured questionnaire and informal engagements with clinicians and the head of the ART Clinic
Triangulation Case descriptions were constructed based on triangulation across multiple data sources (Questionnaire data and, interviewee data).
Peer debriefing and support Data analysis involved a team-based process involving at least three authors.
Respondent validation A data validation workshop was conducted with involving the head of the HIV clinic in 14 of the participating health facilities.