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Table 4 Odds of migrating to more rural area for those working in intermediate and urban municipalities

From: Board certification and urban–rural migration of physicians in Japan

  Tertile 2 (intermediate) in 2012 and Tertile 1 (rural) in 2014 Tertile 3 (urban) in 2012 and Tertile 2 (intermediate) or 1 (rural) in 2014
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Sex
 Male Reference   Reference  
 Female 0.55 (0.45–0.68) <  0.001 0.65 (0.62–0.69) <  0.001
Years of experience
 0–14 Reference   Reference  
 15–29 0.30 (0.25–0.36) <  0.001 0.34 (0.32–0.36) <  0.001
 30–44 0.21 (0.16–0.26) <  0.001 0.22 (0.20–0.24) <  0.001
  ≥ 45 0.20 (0.14–0.28) <  0.001 0.15 (0.12–0.17) <  0.001
Type of institution
 Clinic Reference   Reference  
 Hospital 1.59 (1.31–1.94) <  0.001 1.99 (1.85–2.14) <  0.001
Board certification status from 2012 to 2014
 Remained certified Reference   Reference  
 Lost certification 2.72 (1.91–3.88) <  0.001 1.92 (1.70–2.18) <  0.001
 Newly certified 1.48 (1.12–1.97) 0.006 1.32 (1.21–1.45) <  0.001
 Remained uncertified 1.81 (1.51–2.16) <  0.001 1.41 (1.34–1.50) <  0.001