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Table 2 Clinical characteristics, use of the emergency room and hospitalizations among patients with type 1 diabetes affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security

From: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes patients associated with emergency room visits and hospitalizations in Mexico

  N = 192 (%)
Clinical characteristics
 Age at the beginning of diabetes, years, mean (Standard Deviation -SD-) 13.8 (6.6)
 Diabetes duration
   < 10 years 19.3
   ≥ 10 years < 15 years 21.3
   ≥ 15 years < 20 years 18.2
   ≥ 20 years 14.2
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.1 (4.3)
 Nutritional status
  Underweight < 18.5 kg/m2 3.1
  Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 49.5
  Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 34.9
  Obesity (BMI of 30 or higher kg/m2) 12.5
 Systolic Blood Pressure, mmHg (SD) 107.0 (15.3)
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 70.9 (9.6)
 HbA1c, %, mean (SD) 9.2 (2.2)
  HbA1c < 7% 13.6
  HbA1c > 9% 46.6
 Triglyceride, mg/dl, mean (SD) 145.7 (185.2)
 Total Cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD) 179.7 (46.8)
 HDL, mg/dl, mean (SD)  
  Men N = 54: 49.1 (16.5)
  Women N = 128: 53.2 (16.6)
 LDL, mg/dl, mean (SD) 100.9 (35.9)
 Creatinine clearance, mL/min, mean (SD)
  Men N = 51: 79.4 (40.7)
  Women N = 122: 74.4 (37.1)
Diabetic complications
 Number of diabetic chronic complications
  Without diabetic chronic complications 35.4
  One diabetic complication 26.0
  Two diabetic complications 21.4
  Three or more diabetic complications 17.2
 Microvascular chronic complicationsa 64.1
  Nephropathy 41.2
  Retinopathy 40.6
  Neuropathy 30.2
  Foot ulcers and amputations 5.7
 Macrovascular chronic complications 8.3
 Severe acute diabetic complications during 2016a 19.3
  Severe hypoglycemia 11.9
  Ketoacidosis 8.3
 Comorbidity  
  Hypertension 29.7
  Depression 5.7
  Other 50.5
Insulin therapy
 Insulin monotherapy 16.1
 Combination of intermediate and fast acting insulin 47.4
 Combination of fast-acting and long-acting insulin 36.5
Number of consultations with endocrinologist, mean (SD) 3.14 (1.5)
Use of the emergency room and hospitalizations during 2016
 Visits to the emergency room
  0 61.0
  1 23.4
  2 10.9
   ≥ 3 4.7
 Causes of the emergency room visitsa N = 75
  Hyperglycemia 29.3
  Hypoglycemia 26.7
  Acute nephritic syndrome 6.7
  Acute urinary infection 6.7
  Other causes related to diabetes 2.7
  Causes not related to diabetes 28.0
 Number of hospital admissions N = 192
  0 66.1
  1 21.9
  2 5.7
   ≥ 3 6.3
 Causes of hospitalizationsa N = 65
  Hyperglycemia 24.6
  Ketoacidosis 21.5
  Hypoglycemia 13.8
  Due to chronic diabetes complications 26.2
  Causes not related to diabetes 13.8
  Duration of hospitalizations, days, mean (SD) 10.7 (10.1)
  1. aThe chronic microvascular complications or severe acute diabetic complications are presented as percentages; however, the sum of the percentages of each type of complication does not add up to 100%, as patients can have more than one acute or chronic complications, since these complications are not mutually exclusive. The same rule is applicable for the causes of emergency room visits and diabetes-related hospitalizations