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Table 3 Included studies reporting dysphagia attributable length of stay data

From: Impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on healthcare cost and length of stay in hospital: a systematic review

Study type Citation Primary clinical diagnosis Size of population that LOS is based on Reported LOS Dysphagia (mean unless otherwise stated) Reported LOS No-dysphagia OR Total sample (mean unless otherwise stated) Reported significance
cohort Altman, K. W., Yu, G. P., & Schaefer, S. D. (2010) USA [11] Acute hospitalisations (conditions detailed in Table 4) Admissions = 77,540,204 Dysphagia = 271,983 median 4.04 days (4.0–5.0; 95%CI) median 2.4 days, (3.0–3.0; 95%CI) (data error?) not reported
cohort Arnold, M., Liesirova, K., Broeg-Morvay, A., Meisterernst, J., Schlager, M., Mono, M. L.,. Sarikaya, H. (2016) Switerland [27] Ischaemic stroke No dysphagia n = 452; mean age 64.9 years (SD = 14); Dysphagia n = 118 (20.7%); mean age 65.6 years (SD 14.5). Total hospital LOS = 7.9 (SD = 4.8 days);
Stroke unit LOS = 4.4 (SD = 2.8)
Total hospital LOS 7.2 (SD = 4.4);
Stroke unit LOS 2.7 (SD = 2.4)
Total hospital LOS, p < 0.145;
Stroke unit LOS p < 0.001
cohort Bradley, J. F., 3rd, Jones, M. A., Farmer, E. A., Fann, S. A., & Bynoe, R. (2011) USA [28] Cervical spine injury (blunt trauma) No dysphagia n = 19, mean age 36.9y; Dysphagia n = 37, mean age 42.2y Total LOS = 10.162 days (SD = 7.13);
ICU LOS = 5.486 days (SD = 6.06).
Total LOS 6 days (SD 4.28);
ICU LOS 4 days (SD 8.1)
Total LOS p = 0.083;
ICU LOS p = 0.019
cohort Chaw, E., Shem, K., Castillo, K., Wong, S. L., & Chang, J. (2012) USA [35] Tetraplegia Admissions n = 63; mean age 43 years (SD = 17.2); Dysphagia n = 21 (30.9%); mean age 48.6y (SD = 18.4) 47.9 (+/−20.8) days 38.7 (+/−17.0) days p = 0.87
cohort Falsetti, P., Acciai, C., Palilla, R., Bosi, M., Carpinteri, F., Zingarelli, A.,. .Lenzi, L. (2009) Italy [37] neurorehab (non acute) ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke No dysphagia n = 89 (58.9%); mean age 78.6y (SD = 6.6); Dysphagia n = 62 (41%); mean age 80.7y (SD = 5.4) 35 days (range = 13–93, SD = 16.7) 26.6 days (range = 6–60, SD = 12.3) p = 0.0012
cohort Ferraris, V. A., Ferraris, S. P., Moritz, D. M., & Welch, S. (2001) USA [38] post cardiac surgery No dysphagia n = 1011 (97%), mean age = 62.8 (SD = 11.8); Dysphagia n = 31 (3%), mean age 71.9y (SD = 8.3) 16.1 days (SD = 11.7) 5.7 days (SD = 3.1) p < 0.0001
cohort Genther, D. J., & Gourin, C. G. (2015) USA [16] Head and neck cancer patients who underwent ablative surgery. 61,740 patients, median age 73y (range 66–104); Dysphagia n = 4461 (7.2%) 10 days. Intercept + 0.2242 (0.1419–0.3065 95%CI) 8 days, intercept 0.8448 (0.7211–0.9684 95%CI) p < 0.001
cohort Guyomard, V., Fulcher, R. A., Redmayne, O., Metcalf, A. K., Potter, J. F., & Myint, P. K. (2009) UK [39] Stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) No dysphagia n = 1477, mean age 75y (SD = 12.1); Dysphagia n = 1506, Mean age 79y (SD = 9.7). 16.0 days (SD = 9.9) 10.5 days (SD = 6.3) < 0.001
cohort Hogue, C. W., Jr., Lappas, G. D., Creswell, L. L., Ferguson, T. B., Jr., Sample, M., Pugh, D., Lappas, D. G. (1995) USA [29] acute hospitalisation with cardiopulomoary bypass No dysphagia n = 835, mean age 63 y (+/−  0.4), Dysphagia n = 34, 71y (+/−2) ICU = 15.1 days (+/−  3.1),
Post operative LOS = 33.4 days (+/−  4.4)
ICU = 4.4 days (+/−  0.2);
Post operative LOS = 12.3 days (+/−  0.4)
p = 0.0001
cohort Holmes, S. R. M., Sabel, A. L., Gaudiani, J. L., Gudridge, T., Brinton, J. T., & Mehler, P. S. (2016) USA [32] Anorexia nervosa No dysphagia n = 164, 27 y (22–35); Dysphagia n = 42, 32 years (23–47) median = 21 days (IQR = 14–27) Median = 14 days (IQR = 9–20) p < 0.001
cohort Nilsson, H., Ekberg, O., Olsson, R., & Hindfelt, B. (1998). Sweden [31] Stroke No Dysphagia n = 58; Dysphagia n = 14. median = 14 days (IQR = 8–47) median = 10 days (IQR = 6–22) Not significant
cohort Odderson, I. R., Keaton, J. C., & McKenna, B. S. (1995) USA [42] Acute non-haemorrhagic stroke No-Dysphagia n = 76, age = 75.3y (+/− 1.4); Dysphagia n = 48; age = 75.2y (+/− 1.5) 8.4 days (+/−  0.9) 6.4 days (+/−  0.6) p = 0.05
cohort Rao, N., Brady, S., Chaudhuri, G., Ruroede, K., & Caldwell, R. 2005 [26] Stroke No dysphagia n = 380 (42%); Dysphagia n = 527 (58%) 22.08 days 16.18 days p < 0.001
cohort Smithard, D. G., O’Neill, P. A., Parks, C., & Morris, J. 1996, UK [12] Stroke No dysphagia n = 61; Dysphagia n = 60 patients 44.8 days (32–62; 95%CI) 24.5 days (18–33; CI = 95%) p < 0.001
cohort Teasell, R., Foley, N., Fisher, J., & Finestone, H, 2002 Canada [43] Medullary stroke No Dysphagia n = 9, mean age = 55y (+/−  16); Dysphagia n = 11 (mean; age: 57 +/− 16) Total hospital: 66 days (+/− 17);
Rehabilitation: 48 days (+/− 14)
Total hospital: 44 days (+/− 22).
Rehabilitation: 24 days (+/− 17)
Total hospital p = 0.023,
Rehabilitation p = 0.002
cohort Westergren, A., Hallberg, I. R., & Ohlsson, O. (1999). Sweden [33] Stroke Total n = 96, mean age 74.3y (SD = 9.6), Dysphagia n = 35, mean age 74.6y (SD = 7.6) 53.9 days (+/− 35.9) 25.2 days (+/− 24.6) p < 0.001
cohort Young, E. C., & Durant-Jones, L. (1990). USA [30] Stroke No Dysphagia n = 35, mean age 61 yrs.; Dysphagia n = 65, mean age 75 yrs mean LOS = 53.06; median LOS = 32 mean LOS = 22.10 days; median LOS = 15 days p < 0.0002 (calculated from median)
cross section Chan, J. Y., Li, R. J., & Gourin, C. G. (2013) USA [45] Head and neck cancer patients who underwent ablative surgery. Total n = 7791, mean age 53.4 years (range 18–89); Dysphagia = 6.6% of total Add 2.5 days compared with whole sample (95% CI .5307–.8021, estimate .6664, p < 0.001). Whole sample = 3.7 days (95% CI 0.0205–0.9909) p < 0.001
cross section Semenov, Y. R., Starmer, H. M., & Gourin, C. G. (2012). USA [46] Head and neck cancer patients who underwent ablative surgery. Total n = 93,636, Dysphagia = 5.6% of total Add 2.8 days to total sample 7.3 days (estimate: 0.1998, 95%CI 0.1364–0.2632) p < 0.001
cross section Starmer, H. M., Riley, L. H., 3rd, Hillel, A. T., Akst, L. M., Best, S. R., & Gourin, C. G. 2004, USA [47] Anterior Cervical Disc surgery Total n = 1,659,871; Dysphagia n = 32,922 (2%). Add 1.2 days to total sample, estimate: 0.558 (0.05173–0.7908) 2.2 days (estimate 0.4742 (0.4523–0.4961) p < 0.001
cross section Ward, B. K., Francis, H. W., Best, S. R., Starmer, H. M., Akst, L. M., & Gourin, C. G. (2012) USA [48] Vagus nerve injury due to vestibular schwannoma. Total n = 17,281, mean age 50.4 yrs. (range 18–97); Dysphagia n = 443 Add 1.72 days to total sample (0.23–0.49, 95%CI) intercept 4.73 days p = 0.001
case series Chen, C. J., Saulle, D., Fu, K. M., Smith, J. S., & Shaffrey, C. I. (2013) USA [49] Combined anterior-posterior cervical spine surgery Total n = 30, mean age = 59.1 y (range 36–80); Dysphagia n = 13 (43.3%), mean age 60.7 years (SD = 7.2). 10.8 days (SD 4.9) 5.9 days (SD 2.6) p = 0.004;
After adjustment for age, LOS remained significantly p = 0.021
case series Field, L. H., & Weiss, C. J. (1989) USA [50] Traumatic Brain Injury Total n = 30, Dysphagia n = 9 (30%) 126.7 days 52.3 days None; descriptive only. No indication of variance or CIs