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Table 2 Multilevel models for receiving medical order for lung cancer screening among eligible patients, 2014–2016 (N = 12,801)

From: New recommendation and coverage of low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening: uptake has increased but is still low

Fixed Effects Model 1 Model 2 Model 3a
Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
Intercept −3.56** (0.11) −4.41*** (0.22) −5.44*** (0.88)
Patient-level Factors   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age
 78–80   0.4**(0.3–0.7) 0.4**(0.3–0.7)
 65–77   1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.2 (0.9–1.4)
 55–64   1.0 1.0
Sex
 Female   1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Male   1.0 1.0
Race
 Hispanic   1.2 (0.8–1.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.7)
 Black   1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)
 Asian   1.6* (1.1–2.4) 1.6* (1.1–2.4)
 Other   1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.9 (0.5–1.6)
 Non-Hispanic White   1.0 1.0
Smoking status
 Current Smoker   1.6***(1.4–2.0) 1.7***(1.4–2.0)
 Former Smoker   1.0 1.0
Pack-year (packs per day*years of smoking)
 60+   1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.4)
 50–59   1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
 40–49   1.0 (0.9–1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.3)
 30–39   1.0 1.0
Visiting one’s own primary care provider
 Yes   2.4***(1.8–3.2) 2.4***(1.7–3.4)
 No   1.0 1.0
Severity of major comorbidities
 Severe (CCI ≥5)   0.2***(0.1–0.3) 0.2***(0.1–0.3)
 Moderate (CCI =3–4)   0.6***(0.4–0.8) 0.5***(0.4–0.7)
 Mild (CCI =1–2)   1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 No major comorbidity (CCI =0)   1.0 1.0
Provider-level Factors    OR (95% CI)
Gender
 Female    1.6* (1.1–2.3)
 Male    1.0
Professional
 Physician    3.1 (0.6–16.1)
 Other    1.0
Graduated from medical universities outside of US.
 Yes    0.4** (0.3–0.7)
 No    1.0
Error Variance Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
 Level-2 Intercept 3.17 (0.37)*** 3.28 (0.41)*** 2.63 (0.36)***
Model Fit
 -2 Log Likelihood 5873.46 4934.42*** 3882.77***
  1. ICC = .49; Control variables of Model 2 and 3 not presented in the table include frequency of office visits, and calendar year
  2. OR Odds Ratio, SE Standard Error, 95% CI 95% Confidence interval
  3. *p < .05; ** p < .01; ***p < .0001
  4. aBest fitting model