Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Risk of Bias in each trial

From: Exercise in the treatment of clinical anxiety in general practice – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Random Sequence Allocation Concealment Blinding Participants Blinding Outcome Incomplete Outcome Selective Reporting Attention Bias
Herring et al., 2012 [35] Blocked randomisation stratified according to medication use. Clinicians performing the initial assessment blinded to allocation Participants not blinded X Not blinded. X All allocated subjects completed the study. All outcomes were reported. Low intensity and high intensity groups matched for therapist time but not waiting list control group.
Jazaieri et al., 2012 [34] Randomised using Efrons randomisation procedure No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) No information regarding assessor blinding (?) No difference in attrition between groups. Patients self-reported the quantity of exercise performed. (?) patients were not matched for time spent with an instructor. (X)
Smits et al. 2008 [36] Computer Generated Random Sequence No allocation concealment (X) Participants were not blinded (X) . Not blinded. (X) No difference in attrition between groups. All outcomes were reported. Attention bias, patients were not matched for the spent with an instructor. (X)
Merom et al. 2007 [23] Computer Generated Randomisation Performed by independent research centre Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) No difference in attrition between groups. All outcomes were reported. Groups had matched time with therapist.
Mailey et al., 2010 [37] No information about method of randomisation (?) No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not blinded (?) Very little attrition in both groups. All outcomes were reported. Intervention and control groups not matched for time (X)
Broman-Fulks, 2008 [33] No information about the method of randomisation (?) No information (?) Participants were blinded as to the group they were in Not Blinded (X) All allocated subjects completed the study. All outcomes were reported. Attention bias, patients were not matched for the spent with an instructor. (X)
Wedekind 2010 [38] Blocked randomisation Allocation performed by the hospital pharmacist Participants not blinded (X) Blind rater used to eliminate expectation differences (?) No significant difference in drop outs between groups. All outcomes were reported. Subjects in the control group received time with a therapist doing relaxation training.
Brooks et al. 1998 [39] No information about method of randomisation (?) No information (?) Participants were blinded. Investigators were blinded Similar attrition rate All outcomes were reported. Time matched with therapist across groups
Villaverde et al. 2012 [40] Details given regarding the randomisation procedure No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) Similar attrition rate between groups. All outcomes were reported. No time matching between groups (X)
Medina et al. 2015 [41] Not mentioned in the method section. (X) No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) Similar attrition rate All outcomes were reported. No time matching between groups (X)
Broman-Fulks, 2004 [43] No information about method of randomisation (X) No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) No attrition in the groups All outcomes were reported. Matched for time
Sexton et al. 1989 [44] No information about the method of randomisation (?) No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) higher no. of dropout in the high intensity group (X) All outcomes were reported. Less risk of attention bias as both active interventions.
Steptoe et al. 1989 [45] No information about the method of randomisation (?) No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Not Blinded (X) Similar attrition rate between groups. Some outcomes were not reported (?) Participants in both groups had similar time with therapists
Gaudlitz et al. 2015 [46] Randomised using block allocation Assessment staff were blinded Participants were blinded as to nature of the study Study staff were blinded Low attrition rate and all subjects accounted for All outcomes were reported. Time matched with therapist across groups
Martinsen et al., 1989 [42] Randomised using block allocation No information (?) Participants not blinded (X) Assessors were not blinded Low attrition rate All outcomes were reported. Groups were time matched