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Table 3 List of possible confounding factors

From: Comparative impact of two continuing education activities targeted at COPD educators on educational outcomes: protocol for a non-randomized controlled study using mixed methods

Educational outcome Confounding variable Units, categories, or range Instrument
Educators’ satisfaction
Educators’ learning
Educators’ competence
Educators’ performance
Age [12] in years Standardized form
Level of education [12] <University Standardized form
Motivation to participate in the CE activity [12] Score: 0–6 Adapted from the MSLQ [58]
COPD patients’ outcomes Smoking history [59] in packs-year SLCDC [37]
Dyspnea [60] Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, grade: 1–5 SLCDC [37]
Social support [59] Yes SLCDC [37]
Comorbidity [60] Yes SLCDC [37]
Respiratory tract infections [59] Yes SLCDC [37]
Body mass index [60] < 21 QSCH [39]
≥21 kg/m2
Age [61], in years QSCH [39]
Gender [62] Women QSCH [39]
Previous exacerbations in the six preceding months [59, 60] Yes Telephone interviewer-administered questionnaire [63]
Levels of anxiety [60, 64] Score: 0–21 HADS [65]
Levels of depression [60, 64] Score: 0–21 HADS [65]
  1. Depending on the educational outcome, these variables will be measured in educators or in COPD patients
  2. HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, MSLQ Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, QSCH Quebec Survey on Cardiovascular Health, SLCDC Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada