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Table 6 Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for direct, indirect and total effects for the association between education and out-of-hours primary care use, mediated through health literacy, using the KHB method with logistic regression

From: The role of health literacy in explaining the association between educational attainment and the use of out-of-hours primary care services in chronically ill people: a survey study

  Appraisal of health information (n = 1638) Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers (n = 1629) Navigating the healthcare system (n = 1639) Ability to find good health information (n = 1629) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (n = 1636)
OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI)a
Total effect (education and HLQ) 0.78 (0.66; 0.92)** 0.78 (0.66; 0.92)** 0.76 (0.65; 0.89)** 0.77 (0.66; 0.91)** 0.77 (0.65; 0.90)**
Direct effect (education) 0.76 (0.65; 0.90)** 0.81 (0.68; 0.95)* 0.79 (0.67; 0.93)** 0.82 (0.69; 0.97)* 0.81 (0.68; 0.96)*
Indirect effect (HLQ) 1.02 (1.00; 1.04)* 0.97 (0.94; 1.00)* 0.97 (0.94; 1.00)* 0.94 (0.90; 0.98)** 0.95 (0.90; 1.00)*
Confounding ratio (total effect/direct effect) 0.92 1.16 1.14 1.30 1.24
Confounding percentage (% of model affect attributable to mediator) −8.90% 13.78% 12.27% 22.88% 19.65%
Pseudo R square b 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. a P-value * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001, significant results printed in bold
  2. b According to McFadden method [51]