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Table 3 Mean HLQ scale scores and odds ratios (OR) for bivariate associations between education and having used an out-of-hours primary care service in the past year, and HLQ scales and having used a primary care out-of-hours service in the past year

From: The role of health literacy in explaining the association between educational attainment and the use of out-of-hours primary care services in chronically ill people: a survey study

   Used an out-of-hours primary care servicea (unadjusted) Used an out-of-hours primary care servicea (adjusted)b
Mean scale score (SD) OR (95 CI)c OR (95 CI)c
Education
 Low (ref) 1.00 1.00
 Intermediate 0.61 (0.46; 0.80)*** 0.65 (0.49; 0.85)**
 High 0.63 (0.46; 0.86)** 0.70 (.50; 0.96)*
Number of chronic conditions
 One 1.00
 Two 1.09 (0.83; 1.44)
 Three or more 1.37 (1.02; 1.83)*
Illness duration in years 1.01 (1.00; 1.02)*
HLQ scaled
 Feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers (range 1–4) (n = 1745) 2.97 (.51) 1.14 (0.90; 1.45) 1.12 (0.88; 1.43)
 Having sufficient information to manage my health (range 1–4) (n = 1741) 2.92 (.42) 0.83 (0.63; 1.10) 0.81 (0.61; 1.08)
 Actively managing my health (range 1–4) (n = 1723) 2.85 (.43) 1.29 (0.98; 1.70) 1.31 (0.99; 1.74)
 Social support for health (range 1–4) (n = 1739) 2.91 (.49) 0.87 (0.68; 1.11) 0.88 (0.69; 1.13)
 Appraisal of health information (range 1–4) (n = 1724) 2.64 (.48) 1.43 (1.11; 1.84)** 1.52 (1.18; 1.97)**
 Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers (range 1–5) (n = 1709) 3.97 (.62) 0.76 (0.63; 0.92)** 0.79 (0.65; 0.96)*
 Navigating the healthcare system (range 1–5) (n = 1720) 3.87 (.62) 0.75 (0.63; 0.91)** 0.79 (0.65; 0.95)*
 Ability to find good health information (range 1–5) (n = 1709) 3.90 (.62) 0.71 (0.59; 0.85)*** 0.76 (0.62; 0.92)**
 Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (range 1–5) (n = 1711) 4.03 (.57) 0.73 (0.60; 0.89)** 0.76 (0.62; 0.94)*
  1. a Reference is not having used a primary in out-of-hours service in the past year
  2. b Adjusted for age (continuous), sex (ref male), household status (ref living alone), number of chronic diseases (ref one chronic disease), and illness duration
  3. c P-value * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001, significant results printed in bold
  4. d Higher scores on the HLQ scales reflect better health literacy