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Table 2 Example of analysis

From: The struggle against perceived negligence. A qualitative study of patients’ experiences of adverse events in Norwegian hospitals

Meaning units Condensed meaning unit Interpretation of the underlying meaning Subtopic Main topic
“I didn’t like that lump and I felt strongly that something wasn’t right ... The lump was visible and painful, I went to the doctor several times and tried to speak up ..., but mammography and tissue samples had been taken and the specialist at the hospital had signed them as normal.” Strong concern something is wrong. The lump is visible and painful. Tries to get help, but is rejected Tries to take care of own body and health, but feels rejected Being rejected and not heard “to be ignored” Ignored concern or signs of complication
“I was kind of naïve and believed that when the error first was proven, they would get the grip of things and act very fast, but that certainly did not happen. I had to call, and call and call…That was the worst with the situation” Expects the hospital to get the grip of the proven error fast.
Disappointed they did not act rapid on fault correction
The struggle for treatment makes the situation worse
Missed expectations of hospital responsibility and fault correction Responsibility
Fault correction
Lack of responsibility and fault correction
“The doctor I spoke to said that the first doctor had made an incorrect assessment, but that the system then got involved. A cover-up begins, and there are rules about what they can say and what they can do. Anyway, I am glad he was honest enough to say that. It helps a little.” Feeling confirmed something is wrong. The systems with cover up takes over. Is good to know about the error anyway.
Limited support
Needs support, but professional loyalty is more important Support
Professional loyalty
Lack of support, loyalty and learning