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Table 3 Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) for the association between health insurance coverage and maternal health service utilization among women of reproductive age in Tanzania (N = 4513)

From: Health insurance is important in improving maternal health service utilization in Tanzania—analysis of the 2011/2012 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey

Variable Timing of the first Antenatal visit Completing recommended number of antenatal visits Birth attended by a skilled health worker
AOR 95% CI P value AOR 95% CI P value AOR 95% CI P value
Health insurance coverage:
 No 1    1    1   
 Yes 1.855 1.375–2.503 *** 1.331 0.782–2.267   2.012 1.458–2.775 ***
Age groups:
 15–19 1    1    1   
 20–24 1.465 1.060–2.026 ** 5.367 1.280–22.51 ** 0.041 0.754–0.576 *
 25–29 1.055 0.751–1.483   5.786 1.385–24.17 ** 0.023 0.723–0.546 *
 30–34 0.836 0.581–1.202   5.874 1.396–24.71 ** 0.008 0.677–0.506 **
 35–39 0.949 0.657–1.370   5.883 1.390–24.91 ** 0.106 0.783–0.582  
 40–44 0.795 0.506–1.250   2.911 0.621–13.65   0.006 0.614–0.432 **
 45–49 0.673 0.313–1.450   2.254 0.298–17.06   0.633 0.877–0.511  
Area of Residence:
 Rural 1    1    1   
 Urban 1.255 1.054–1.345 ** 1.454 0.775–2.726   0.511 0.388–0.673 ***
Marital Status:
 Single 1    1    1   
 Married 1.202 0.861–1.679   1.625 0.485–5.436   0.899 0.656–1.231  
 Separated/widowed 1.327 0.880–2.002   1.325 0.367–4.782   0.732 0.504–1.063  
Zones:
 Eastern 1    1    1   
 Western 0.391 0.268–0.572 *** 1.086 0.516–2.287   0.654 0.457–0.937 *
 Southern 1.118 0.756–1.653   1.355 0.477–3.847   0.626 0.412–0.951 *
 Southern Highlands 0.765 0.543–1.079 *** 0.526 0.204–1.352   3.669 2.325–5.790 ***
 Southern West Highland 0.381 0.266–0.546 *** 0.853 0.402–1.809   0.475 0.335–0.673 ***
 Central 0.298 0.204–0.436 ** 1.432 0.688–2.983   0.499 0.352–0.709 ***
 Northern 0.568 0.398–0.809 *** 0.483 0.184–1.265   0.360 0.248–0.522 ***
 Lake 0.323 0.238–0.438 *** 1.414 0.719–2.782   0.448 0.327–0.615 ***
 Zanzibar 0.512 0.363–0.722 *** 1.641 0.784–3.434   0.210 0.146–0.303 ***
Births in the past 5 yrs.:
 One 1    1    1   
 Two or more 1.277 1.071–1.523 ** 1.681 0.000   0.589 0.510–0.679 ***
Educational level:
 No education 1    1    1   
 Primary incomplete 1.415 1.071–1.869 ** 0.974 0.681–1.393   1.209 0.974–1.500  
 Primary Complete 1.212 0.962–1.528   0.769 0.575–1.029   1.335 1.126–1.583 **
 Secondary or higher 0.817 0.581–1.150   0.658 0.365–1.186   2.102 1.564–2.824 ***
Wealth:
 Poorest 1    1    1   
 Poorer 0.988 0.79–1.286   1.200 0.859–1.676   1.326 1.092–1.609 **
 Middle 1.082 0.830–1.411   0.989 0.696–1.406   1.463 1.200–1.783 ***
 Richer 1.228 0.931–1.621   0.829 0.544–1.262   2.369 1.898–2.958 ***
 Richest 1.605 1.126–2.288 ** 0.686 0.344–1.369   4.527 3.239–6.326 ***
Occupation:
 Unemployed 1    1    1   
 Self employed 1.104 0.828–1.473   0.930 0.587–1.473   0.760 0.591–0.978 *
 Manual laborer 1.191 0.884–1.605   0.547 0.296–1.009   1.306 0.978–1.743  
 Employed 1.254 0.808–1.946   0.508 0.144–1.788   1.289 0.784–2.120  
  1. Here *, ** and *** indicate p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively