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Table 4 Relationships between GP co-location and GP outcomes

From: The benefits of co-location in primary care practices: the perspectives of general practitioners and patients in 34 countries

Multilevel models
(*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)
Provision of technical proceduresa Use of guidelinesa Collaboration with different providersa Coordination with secondary carea
Fixed part Coeff. S.E. Coeff. S.E. Coeff. S.E. Coeff. S.E.
Single-handed GP practice (ref)
 - More GPs without other professionals 0.153*** 0.023 0.021 0.013 0.033* 0.013 0.090*** 0.024
 - One GP with other professionals 0.146*** 0.022 −0.003 0.012 0.106*** 0.013 0.108*** 0.022
 - More GPs with other professionals 0.200*** 0.021 −0.001 0.012 0.143*** 0.012 0.080*** 0.022
Random part / Variance in full model Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E.
 Country level 0.415 0.100 0.012 0.003 0.023 0.006 0.028 0.007
 GP level 0.182 0.003 0.053 0.001 0.057 0.001 0.184 0.003
Variance in empty model Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E.
 Country level 0.452 0.110 0.014 0.004 0.025 0.006 0.029 0.007
 GP level 0.201 0.003 0.054 0.001 0.060 0.001 0.186 0.003
Variance in model only with covariates Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E. Var. S.E.
 Country level 0.409 0.099 0.012 0.003 0.022 0.005 0.029 0.007
 GP level 0.185 0.003 0.053 0.001 0.057 0.001 0.182 0.003
  1. aCovariates GP level: sex, age, urbanisation, involvement in disease management