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Table 4 Fixed-Effects Model Estimates for Medicare Utilization

From: Disaster impacts on cost and utilization of Medicare

  IP Covered Days
Per 1000 Beneficiaries
IRF Covered Days
Per 1000 Beneficiaries
HH Visits
Per 1000 Beneficiaries
  β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Average age of beneficiary 19.00*** 11.38,26.62 0.05 −1.98,2.08 65.42* 1.71,129.14
Female, % 7.13 −0.15,14.41 −0.66 −2.63,1.30 −42.35 −103.35,18.65
African American, % 4.95 −1.15,11.04 −0.05 −1.65,1.56 50.40 −0.55,101.36
Eligible for Medicaid, % 20.80*** 18.49,23.11 0.61 −0.01,1.22 30.42** 11.09,49.75
People below poverty line, % 0.58 −1.16,2.33 −0.15 −0.61,0.31 −3.31 −17.91,11.29
2009 −94.16*** −101.24,-87.08 0.48 −1.40,2.35 246.53*** 187.33,305.73
2010 − 141.42*** − 149.29,-133.56 −3.37** −5.45,-1.28 283.53*** 217.72,349.34
2011 −195.97*** − 205.01,-186.93 −3.93** −6.33,-1.53 91.86* 16.21,167.50
2012 −274.42*** − 284.06,-264.78 −5.92*** −8.48,-3.37 −50.86 −131.58,29.85
Hazard Exposure       
 Some −1.95 −8.08,4.18 1.48 −0.14,3.11 36.73 −14.50,87.96
 High −17.36** −30.54,-4.18 4.90** 1.44,8.36 0.47 −109.72,110.65
 Extreme −1.48 −13.74,10.77 0.19 −3.00,3.39 −131.73* − 234.20,-29.26
Previous year Hazard Exposure       
 Some 0.74 −5.26,6.74 0.02 −1.56,1.61 34.07 −16.10,84.23
 High −18.15** −30.64,-5.66 3.48* 0.21,6.75 −40.13 − 144.54,64.28
 Extreme 16.05* 2.91,29.19 −2.02 −5.46,1.41 30.88 −78.99,140.75
Constant − 423.82 − 1047.32,199.68 162.17 −3.45,327.79 − 194.18 − 5410.22,5021.86
Observations 7695   7387   7689  
R 2 0.553   0.013   0.042  
  1. Source: CMS GVPUF and FEMA
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001