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Table 3 Major themes and supporting evidence from formative research analysis, and corresponding intervention components

From: Development of a 5As-based technology-assisted weight management intervention for veterans in primary care

Theme Evidence Intervention Components
Collaborative goal setting • Veterans and VA staff felt positively about using goal setting for healthy behavior change
• VA staff felt patients often set unrealistic goals, but VA staff burden increased when they had to work with patients to scale goals down
Online tool creates initial goals
Health coach helps refine into SMART goals
PACT members endorse goals and provide motivational interviewing if needed
Accountability and Feedback • Veterans wanted someone to hold them accountable to their goals and receive advice from their primary care team
• VA staff faced time constraints when discussing goal setting during the PC visit
• VA staff described lack of effective or standardized way to record patient goals and communicate them to their PACT
Health coach primarily delivers intervention and refines goals with Veterans
PACT members use an EMR research note and automatic reminder to discuss/update goals during next visit
Telephone coaching allows Health Coach to regularly follow up Veterans, document progress, and adjust goals
Assistance with Technology • Some Veterans were familiar with various technology platforms and used tools to research health information and/or facilitate healthy behaviors, while others felt uncomfortable using technology without guidance
• Veterans and VA staff agreed that a knowledgeable individual should be available to assist patients in using technology
Online tool has built-in instruction slide
Health coach is present to answer questions and/or guide Veteran while using online tool
Difficulties with Transportation • Veterans described barriers (ex. physical disabilities and/or financial issues) to traveling to the VA for scheduled primary care appointments or MOVE! sessions Telephone coaching allows Health Coach to meet with Veterans via telephone at convenient times for the patient
  1. Abbreviations: EMR electronic medical record, PC primary care, VA veterans affairs