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Table 1 Modified cultural formulation guide used in cultural assessments

From: The relevance of clinical ethnography: reflections on 10 years of a cultural consultation service

Patient’s cultural identity • Cultural reference group(s)
• Languages spoken
• Religion/spirituality
• Schooling, professional experience
• Migration history
• Level/type of integration (with cultures of home and host countries)
Patient’s social context • Work, income, legal status
• Sources of stress
• Sources of support and health information
• Social networks and activities
• Impact of illness on social functioning
Patient’s explanatory model • Main complaint
• Meaning, explanation and perceived severity of current illness
• Treatment–seeking for current illness
• Previous illness and health care experiences (self and others)
• Treatment expectations
• Worries, concerns, priorities with regards to current illness
Provider/patient relationship • Patient/provider ethnic, social and cultural differences
• Value conflicts
• Possible sources of prejudice and bias (of patient and provider)
• Differences in understanding of medicine and the health care system