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Table 2 Student’s t- or χ2-tests of differences between below and above median LOS for predictors in the NS sample

From: Factors associated with prolonged length of stay for elective hepatobiliary and neurosurgery patients: a retrospective medical record review

Means or Percentages At Below LOS Median of the TSP At Above LOS Median of the TSP p-value
Preoperative Factors:
 Age ± s.d. 46.56 ± 17.38 52.87 ± 15.91 0.03
 Gender: Male (n) 31.80% (21) 47.40% (37) 0.04
 Race: Chinese (n) 62.10% (41) 67.90% (53) 0.29
 Unhealthy BMI (n) 78.80% (26) 64.50% (20) 0.16
 Braden Scale ± s.d. 22.42 ± 1.23 21.39 ± 2.79 0.06
 Nutrition Score ± s.d. 0.16 ± 0.50 0.38 ± 0.92 0.42
 Functional Status ± s.d. 0.14 ± 0.68 1.27 ± 1.91 < 0.001
 Smoking History (n) 10.50% (4) 12.50% (5) 0.53
 Number of Comorbidities ± s.d. 0.95 ± 0.93 1.24 ± 1.02 0.19
 Number of Abnormal Labs ± s.d. 1.65 ± 1.10 2.75 ± 1.35 < 0.001
 Number of Fall Risks ± s.d. 0.32 ± 0.85 0.57 ± 0.70 0.02
 Weekend Admissions (n) 34.80% (23) 33.30% (26) 0.49
 Admissions After 5 pm (n) 33.30% (22) 54.70% (41) 0.01
 Referral to OT (n) 11.10% (4) 32.40% (11) 0.03
 Referral to PT (n) 13.90% (5) 35.30% (12) 0.04
 Number of Delays ± s.d. 1.40 ± 1.73 1.39 ± 1.69 0.60
Intraoperative Factors:
 Preparation Duration ± s.d. 1:07:43 ± 0:24:03 1:15:08 ± 0:26:48 0.09
 Operation Duration ± s.d. 1:40:52 ± 0:58:15 2:27:16 ± 1:55:03 <0.001
 Operation End After 5 pm (n) 15.20% (10) 17.90% (14) 0.41
Postoperative Factors:
 Number of Insertions ± s.d. 0.85 ± 1.04 1.18 ± 1.35 0.24
 Number of HAI ± s.d. 0. 05 ± 0.23 0.55 ± 0.83 < 0.001
 Number of Medications ± s.d. 0.08 ± 0.36 0.56 ± 0.82 < 0.001
 Weekend Discharge (n) 37.90% (25) 24.40% (19) 0.06
 Discharged After 5 pm (n) 18.20% (12) 36.80% (28) 0.01
  1. LOS length of stay
  2. NS neurosurgery
  3. TSP table of surgical procedure
  4. s.d standard deviation
  5. BMI body-mass index
  6. Unhealthy BMI BMI outside the 18.5–23 range
  7. OT occupational therapy
  8. PT physiotherapy
  9. HAI hospital-acquired infections