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Table 4 Multivariable regression for change in clinical performance 2007–2010 by facility and neighborhood co-variates

From: Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay-for-performance

Co-Variates Change in Hgb <10 g/dL [95% CI]b Change in Hgb > 12 g/dL [95% CI]b Change in URR < 65 [95% CI]c
Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients
Facility Level Characteristics
Chain Type
 Other chain Referent Referent Referent
 Chain 1 −0.38a [−0.68, −0.67] −12.69a [−14.41, −10.98] 0.91a [0.42, 1.41]
 Chain 2 −0.41a [−0.72, −0.10] −0.46 [−2.19, 1.26] 0.14 [−0.35, 0.64]
 Independent −0.08 [−0.41, 0.26] 3.72a [1.84, 5.59] −0.06 [−0.60, 0.49]
Total # Stations (per station)
 Low (0–13) Referent Referent Referent
 Medium (14–20) −0.11 [−0.39, 0.17] 0.12 [−0.47, 1.70] −0.33 [−0.79, 0.14]
 High (21–80) 0.11 [−0.20, 0.42] 0.77 [−0.96, 2.49] −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]
 Length of Operation (per year) 0.02a [0.00, 0.03] 0.03 [−0.04, 0.11] −0.003 [−0.03, 0.02]
Neighborhood Level Characteristics
Percent African-American
 Quartile 1 ≤ 8.6% Referent Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 8.6%–15.7% 0.07 [−0.25, 0.39] −1.22 [−3.00, 0.57] −0.63a [−1.15, −0.11]
 Quartile 3 15.7% −25% 0.19 [−0.12, 0.55] -2.42a [−4.29, −0.54] −0.53a [−1.07, 0.01]
 Quartile 4 > 24.7% 0.04 [−0.29, 0.45] −3.43a [−5.52, −1.34] −0.85a [−1.05, −0.27]
Percent Below Federal Poverty Level
 Quartile 1 ≤ 1.7% Referent Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 1.7% - 7.2% 0.06 [−0.25, 0.38] −0.33 [−2.08, 1.43] 0.09 [−0.42, 0.60]
 Quartile 3 7.2% - 24.9% 0.04 [−0.28, 0.37] −0.53 [−2.35, 1.29] 0.19 [−0.34, 0.71]
 Quartile 4 > 24.7% 0.13 [−0.21, 0.47] 0.80 [−1.10, 2.71] 0.30 [−0.25, 0.85]
  1. a p < 0.05. bHemoglobin (Hgb) goals: 10 ≤ Hgb ≤ 12, so decreasing proportion less than 10 or greater than 12 (negative sign) is a positive clinical change. cInadequate dialysis is Urea Reduction Rate (URR) <65 so decreasing proportion of URR < 65 (negative sign) is a positive clinical change. Confidence intervals are at the 95% significance level. Multivariable model includes profit status, total number of stations (by tertile), length of operation, percent African American by facility neighborhood (by quartile), percent below Federal Poverty Level by facility neighborhood (by quartile)