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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Patient safety culture in care homes for older people: a scoping review

First author, year, country Setting Participants Research method Measurement tool Level of analysis Focus
Arnetz, 2011, USA [52] NH Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC & Quality-work competence questionnaire 1 & 2 Identify predictors
Ausserhofer, 2013, USA [53] NH Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey SOS 1 Psychometrics
Berlowitz, 2003, USA [54] NH Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey Created Employee Survey 1 Culture Analysis
Bonner, 2009, USA [55] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Bonner, 2008, N/A [51] N/A N/A Literature Review N/A N/A N/A
Brown, 2016, USA [70] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Buljac-Samardzic, 2016, Netherlands [61] NH & RH Frontline Quantitative Survey SAQ 1 Culture Analysis
Castle, 2011, USA [62] Hospital & NH Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Castle, 2006, USA [63] NH Administration Quantitative Survey HSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Castle, 2006, USA [64] NH Administration Quantitative Survey HSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Castle, 2011, USA [65] NH Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Castle, 2010, USA [66] NH Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Ginsburg, 2014, Canada [56] Across settings, including NH Frontline Quantitative Survey PSCS 1 Psychometrics
Handler, 2006, USA [67] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey PSCS 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Hartmann, 2013, USA [68] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey CESARS 1 & 2 Psychometrics
Hughes, 2006, USA [69] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey HSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Mitchell, 2012, Canada [57] Across settings, including LTC settings Frontline & Administration Quantitative Survey Accreditation
Canada’s Patient Safety Culture Tool
1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Scott-Cawiezell, 2006, USA [74] NH Frontline & Administration MMR- Survey & Case Study Selected HSOPSC survey items 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Sheridan, 2014, Australia [59] RH Frontline Qualitative Interviews N/A 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Thomas, 2012, USA [72] NH Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Wagner, 2009, USA & Canada [58] LTC settings including NH Frontline Quantitative Survey HSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Wagner, 2013, Canada [59] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey CANE 2 Culture Analysis
Wagner, 2012, USA [73] NH Administration Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Culture Analysis
Wisniewski, 2007, USA [71] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey SAQ 1 Culture Analysis
Zuniga, 2013, Switzerland [60] NH Frontline Quantitative Survey NHSOPSC 1 & 2 Psychometrics