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Table 2 Bivariate Relationships of Individual-Level Characteristics with Maternal Healthcare Service Utilization in 2011

From: Women’s autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia

  2005 (N = 6057) 2011 (N = 7043)
  Antenatal care (%) Health facility delivery (%) Postnatal care (%) Antenatal care (%) Health facility delivery (%) Postnatal care (%)
Individual-level characteristics
Attitudes toward wife beating
 Favorable 13.4* 9.5* 7.6* 16.4* 10.3* 9.2*
 Opposing 35.0 30.1 23.1 38.1 32.1 24.0
Women’s decision-making power
 Low 10.3* 7.6* 6.0* 12.5* 9.0* 7.9*
 High 20.4 15.8 12.5 25.9 18.8 15.2
Age (years)
 15–24 19.7* 15.6* 11.6* 22.1* 19.4* 14.9*
 25–34 18.3 13.8 11.3 23.3 17.2 13.7
 35–49 12.8 9.5 7.5 19.7 10.2 10.0
Age at the first marriage (years)
 <16 12.8* 8.7* 6.4* 16.8* 10.5* 9.8*
 16–19 18.1 13.0 11.7 22.8 15.3 12.7
 ≥20 28.9 26.7 19.6 32.4 29.6 21.2
Religion
 Orthodox 23.1* 16.9* 14.4* 31.6* 23.3* 19.1*
 Protestant 15.9 11.4 9.3 18.3 11.3 10.6
 Muslim 12.6 9.4 7.1 17.4 13.1 4.7
 Others 7.8 17.5 4.6 12.1 10.3 2.9
Educational level
 No education 9.4* 6.0* 4.4* 13.1* 7.3* 6.6*
 Primary 24.8 17.6 13.6 32.5 23.9 18.0
 Secondary and higher 75.0 70.2 59.2 75.7 79.7 62.9
Employment status
 No 15.3* 11.1* 9.0* 18.7* 13.4* 11.7*
 Yes 23.8 19.9 15.0 30.2 22.2 16.4
Child was wanted
 No 18.7 13.7 10.8 22.5 16.5 13.3
 Yes 16.7 12.9 10.2 22.0 15.9 13.0
Birth order
 First 28.8* 27.6* 19.6* 35.3* 35.1* 25.5*
 Second 25.8 15.6 16.2 30.1 24.2 17.4
 Third or higher 12.3 8.2 6.7 16.5 8.9 8.7
Number of children in the household
 1 or 2 24.5* 21.2* 16.7* 30.9* 27.7* 20.2*
 3 or 4 14.0 10.2 7.9 18.2 11.0 9.9
 ≥5 10.3 6.1 5.0 14.7 6.1 7.2
Spouse’s educational level
 No education 7.7* 4.7* 3.2* 11.2* 5.6* 5.9*
 Primary 17.1 10.8 9.3 26.3 17.4 12.9
 Secondary and higher 53.5 48.7 39.2 54.9 56.1 44.1
Media exposure
 No 11.2* 7.3* 5.7* 12.1* 6.4* 6.0*
 Yes 60.7 55.3 44.1 43.3 36.5 28.2
Wealth Index
 Poorest 4.4* 4.2* 2.2* 7.5* 5.0* 4.1*
 Poor 5.7 4.0 2.4 11.8 4.0 5.1
 Middle 9.1 3.3 3.4 15.5 4.5 5.1
 Rich 12.5 6.6 5.1 21.8 8.3 10.3
 Richest 52.7 44.9 37.0 57.4 57.7 41.3
Place of residence
 Urban 65.0* 59.9* 49.0 58.1* 62.6* 44.2*
 Rural 9.1 5.1 3.7 13.9 5.6 6.0
  1. *P < 0.05
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