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Table 4 Description of LPEP country programs in India, Nepal and Indonesia based on WHO framework

From: Introducing leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis into the health systems of India, Nepal and Indonesia: a case study

WHO Framework Themes LPEP Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India LPEP Morang, Jhapa and Parsa, Nepal LPEP Sumenep, Indonesia
Service Delivery Average coverage (2015–16) SDR coverage is average 22 contacts per index case SDR coverage is average 23 contacts per index case SDR coverage is average 33 contacts per index case
Infrastructure General health care system General health care system General health care system
Activities Line listing of HH, Neighbours and social contacts Contact tracing of HH and Neighbours Contact tracing of HH and Neighbours
HH, neighbours and school visits by volunteers (ASHA) and paramedics (ANM/PMW) HH and neighbours visits by volunteers (FCHV) and paramedics (LFP) Community gathering by village midwife and paramedics (LO)
Individual screening of contacts by paramedics Individual screening of contacts by paramedics Self-screening and then re-screening of the suspects by paramedics
SDR distribution immediately after screening SDR distribution immediately after screening SDR distribution after 2–3 days of IEC on self-screening
Onsite data collection (paper forms) Onsite data collection (paper forms) Onsite data collection (paper forms)
Process Refer Fig. 4 Refer Fig. 4 Refer Fig. 4
SDR supply Rifampicin is procured by Dept. of Health in al dosages. Syrups available Rifampicin is procured by Dept. of Health in all dosage. Syrups not available Rifampicin is procured by Dept. of Health in all dosage. Syrups not available
Health Workforce Staff General health care staff + LPEP Supervisor (1) and Research assistants (4) General health care staff, + LPEP Manager (1) and District supervisors (3) General health care staff + LPEP manager (1)
Training LPEP operations and data management training to the staff before inception LPEP operations and data management training to the staff before inception LPEP operations and data management training to the staff before inception
Information Indicators Demographic, Epidemiology, Clinical and coverage indicators Demographic, Epidemiology, Clinical and coverage indicators Demographic, Epidemiology, Clinical and coverage indicators
Data Management Electronic data entry at district level by RAs in standard database (similar in all countries) Electronic data entry at district level by SAs in standard database (similar in all countries) Electronic data entry at district level by DLO in standard database (similar in all countries)
Supervision Filed supervision by LPEP staff (daily bases), National program (periodic), International partners (twice a year) Filed supervision by LPEP staff (daily bases), National program (periodic), International partners (twice a year) Filed supervision by LPEP staff (daily bases), National program (periodic), International partners (twice a year)
Reporting Monthly, quarterly and Annually. Bottom-up at all levels Monthly, quarterly and Annually. Bottom-up at all levels Monthly, quarterly and Annually. Bottom-up at all levels
Innovation Initiatives Rifampicin available in syrup for pediatric cases No initiatives identified Hand fan with leprosy and self-screening information.
Financing Funding Majorly Govt. funds. NGO funding only for LPEP staff, monitoring and trainings Majorly Govt. funds. NGO funding only for LPEP staff, monitoring and trainings Majorly Govt. funds. NGO funding only for LPEP staff, monitoring and trainings
Funds disbursement On time disbursement of NGO funds. The government funds disbursement depends on national program’s status On time disbursement of NGO funds. The government funds disbursement depends on national program’s status On time disbursement of NGO funds. The government funds disbursement depends on national program’s status
Governance Strategy Extended contact tracing, including social contacts (school children) Extended contact tracing Extended contact tracing with self- screening
Integration Integrated into general health system Integrated into general health system Integrated into general health system
  1. ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwife, ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist, DLO District Leprosy Officer, FCHV Female Community Health Volunteer, HH Household, IEC Information Education Communication, LFP Leprosy Focal, LO Leprosy Officer, NGO Non-governmental Organization, PMW Multipurpose Worker, RA Research Assistant, SA Statistical Assistant, SDR Single Dose of Rifampicin