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Table 9 Annual costs in Swedish krona (Sweden)

From: Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

Costs in SEK, mean (95% CI) CKD 1–3 (n = 64) CKD 4–5 (n = 55) Dialysis (n = 61) Transplant (n = 63) P value
Direct costs 28,820 (16,123–50,689) 48,624 (36,718–65,151) 712,482 (668,060–766,530) 173,199 (135,833–218,165) <0.0001
Hospitalisations 3812 (1297–8456) 9840 (3871–19,716) 41,015 (27,561–57,668) 19,223 (9717–32,319) <0.0001
Outpatient care visits 5878 (4291–7943) 10,457 (8193–14,512) 16,221 (11871–21,402) 16,288 (12,728–21,120) <0.0001
Primary care visits 1178 (589–2088) 2056 (539–5484) 865 (124–2225) 598 (120–1077) .5094
Surgical procedures 3349 (187–10,713) 7135 (1620–15,769) 31,431 (16,065–51,975) 8131 (3603–14,557) <0.0001
Diagnostic tests 2847 (2244–3509) 5810 (4535–7332) 25,140 (21,308–29,294) 10,987 (8119–14,700) <0.0001
Home care/medical assistance 9442 (37–27,461) 675 (47–1850) 10,525 (3734–20,134) 2359 (263–7537) .0002
Routine dialysis care 488,009 (461940–511,484) 15,901 (4185–32,472) <0.0001
Haemodialysis transportation 37,145 (30,444–43,657) 269 (0–1344) <0.0001
Drug use 2313 (1333–3490) 12,651 (9110–16,825) 62,131 (54,647–71,169) 99,443 (80,719–125,735) <0.0001
 Antihypertensives 419 (341–513) 666 (556–784) 503 (415–603) 583 (451–756) .0282
 Phosphate binders 1244 (598–1996) 9788 (7577–12,262) 472 (108–1151) <0.0001
 ESAs 63 (0–257) 3535 (1350–6252) 24,450 (20,476–27,892) 3622 (1533–6409) <0.0001
 Analgesics for kidney pain 14 (5–26) 102 (28–255) 78 (21–193) 15 (2–37) .1032
 Vitamin D analogues 1776 (824–2952) 6162 (4613–7852) 11,792 (10,796–12,592) 4069 (2756–5544) <0.0001
 Immunosupressants 3579 (291–8847) 90,205 (72,049–117,127) <0.0001
Other drugs 41 (10–95) 942 (135–2184) 11,941 (9447–14,436) 477 (202–909) <0.0001
Indirect costs 64,259 (39,484–92,072) 128,541 (90,007–169,626) 124,957 (85,289–162,184) 112,688 (77,160–150,663) .0438
Productivity loss 63,963 (39,446–91,997) 126,019 (88,140–165,959) 115,458 (77,012–150,462) 111,658 (75,795–149,420) .1842
Informal care 296 (0–887) 2522 (864–5088) 9499 (3762–19,266) 1031 (410–1871) <0.0001
Total costs 93,079 (64,756–125,857) 177,165 (131,147–227,131) 837,438 (771,457–903,231) 285,887 (228,017–352,229) <0.0001
  1. P values calculated with Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. SEK Swedish krona, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, CI confidence interval (bias corrected)