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Table 7 Annual costs in euro (Finland)

From: Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

Costs in EUR, mean (95% CI) CKD 1–3 (n = 64) CKD 4–5 (n = 55) Dialysis (n = 61) Transplant (n = 63) P value
Direct costs 3676 (2223–6190) 5883 (4588–7701) 64,811 (60,460–70,417) 20,305 (16,228–25,166) <0.0001
Hospitalisations 507 (172–1125) 1309 (515–2611) 5455 (3666–7670) 2557 (1283–4299) <0.0001
Outpatient care visits 1159 (843–1569) 2057 (1606–2871) 3203 (2329–4230) 3197 (2502–4155) <0.0001
Primary care visits 237 (117–403) 414 (84–1097) 174 (50–548) 121 (48–265) .5094
Surgical procedures 249 (15–794) 511 (154–1098) 2562 (1211–5119) 1009 (435–1956) <0.0001
Diagnostic tests 191 (125–263) 237(166–321) 659 (511–843) 354 (251–496) <0.0001
Home care/medical assistance 1048 (4–3049) 74 (5–204) 1093 (384–2044) 260 (28–837) .0002
Routine dialysis care 42,900 (40,609–44,964) 1398 (368–2810) <0.0001
Haemodialysis transportation 4090 (3184–5080) 13 (0–25) <0.0001
Drug use 284 (175–419) 1281 (1008–1600) 4675 (4040–5512) 11,396 (9404–13,944) <0.0001
 Antihypertensives 68 (54–86) 113 (95–132) 73 (60–86) 96 (78–117) .0020
 Phosphate binders 225 (103–362) 1266 (1006–1554) 65 (15–148) <0.0001
 ESAs 4 (0–15) 204 (78–361) 1413 (1181–1611) 209 (89–370) <0.0001
 Analgesics for kidney pain 3 (1–7) 14 (5–30) 12 (4–25) 4 (0–12) .1329
 Vitamin D analogues 198 (93–335) 689 (516–878) 1318 (1207–1407) 455 (310–620) <0.0001
 Immunosupressants 440 (26–1076) 10,469 (8516–12,955) <0.0001
 Other drugs 10 (3–27) 36 (17–61) 154 (126–183) 99 (48–171) <0.0001
Indirect costs 4863 (2986–7132) 9904 (6738–13,319) 7674 (5195–10,042) 7585 (5125–10,494) .0925
Productivity loss 4835 (2959–7104) 9667 (6586–13,018) 6783 (4586–8815) 7488 (5058–10,382) .2742
Informal care 28 (0–83) 237 (79–475) 891 (353–1807) 97 (38–176) <0.0001
Total costs 8539 (6042–11,631) 15,787 (12,006–20,008) 72,486 (67,053–79,025) 27,890 (22,669–33,722) <0.0001
  1. P values calculated with Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. EUR euro, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, CI confidence interval (bias corrected)