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Table 1 Affiliations within the British Jewish Community

From: Improving access to mental health care in an Orthodox Jewish community: a critical reflection upon the accommodation of otherness

Haredi A rapidly growing group that adheres strictly to the corpus of religious law called the Halacha. In 2011, proportion of Haredi Jews was estimated to be no more than 10% across the United Kingdom. However, the area in which the project was conducted contains one of the largest concentrations of the Haredi community in the country [100]. The residential preferences of the people of the Haredi community are strongly influenced by their desire to belong to a kehilla, a local and autonomous group of people who share their theological outlook, culture, and traditional attitudes towards religious observance [101]. The Haredim follow the guidance of their religious leaders, who act as spiritual guides and educators and their religious ideology regulates the observance of the Sabbath, the preparation of kosher foods, social interaction between men and women and many other aspects of their day to day lives.
Cultural boundaries are symbolically manifested by a distinctive dress code. Haredi men are often bearded, wear a kipah (skull-cap) or a black hat and a formal suit. Haredi women dress modestly, wearing mid to long lengths skirts and they tend to keep their head covered. Men may devote their time to religious studies and stay in religious seminaries called yeshivas until their mid to late 20s. Couples tend to marry young and have large families. The Haredim’s level of participation in the labour market outside the internal economy of the community are lower than other Jewish religious groups [102].
Orthodox Approximately 60% of people in the United Kingdom who identify themselves as Jewish currently consider themselves to be members of the Orthodox community, but the community is steadily declining and the age profile of the community is getting older [100]. The community is more pragmatic in their attitudes towards religious observance than the Haredi community [103]. The people of the community also have greater freedom to make personal decisions, without consulting their religious leaders and the community is more integrated within mainstream British culture [104].
Liberal,Reform and Conservative A small minority who adopt the position that it is necessary for the Jewish people to reinterpret and adapt their religious culture in order to engage and integrate themselves, within the modern world. For example, the Reform movement departed from the Orthodox tradition, by abandoning the historical prohibition that had prevented the children of Jewish fathers who we born to non-Jewish mothers, being accepted as Jews without a conversion ceremony.
Non-affiliated and Secular Appromately 30% of Jewish people define their identity in heterodox terms [100, 105]. Many participate in religious activities, but their motivation is due more to their desire to maintain cultural and familial traditions, rather than a strong sense of religious obligation [103]. For some their sense of Jewish identity is not connected to their religious faith and some are overtly anti-religious [106]. They associate via loosely structured, geographically dispersed family and social networks.