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Table 4 Mixed effect logistic regression for a combination of processes of care and clinical targets on differences between SDCs and GMCsa “clinics effect” at each hospital level and differences between clinic type effects across hospital levels (clinics-hospital interaction effect)

From: A combination of process of care and clinical target among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in general medical clinics and specialist diabetes clinics at hospital levels

  Case-mix Regional Provincial Community
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Processes of care
 HbA1c exam 1.96 (1.64–2.34) 3.60 (2.23–5.80) 4.17 (2.83–6.13) 3.24 (2.08–5.03) 2.57 (1.97–3.36) 2.55 (1.88–3.46) 0.97 (0.60–1.36) 0.98 (0.69–1.41)
 LDL-C exam 1.26 (1.05–1.51) 0.97 (0.63–1.51) 1.47 (1.06–2.05) 1.13 (0.74–1.72) 1.20 (0.89–1.62) 0.89 (0.63–1.25) 1.39 (1.01–1.94) 1.33 (0.93–1.89)
 Eye exam 1.87 (1.62–2.17) 1.14 (0.88–1.48) 1.49 (1.20–1.85) 1.35 (1.04–1.77) 2.35 (1.80–3.06) 1.99 (1.48–2.69) 2.29 (1.67–3.15) 2.54 (1.82–3.55)
 Foot exam 3.37 (2.85–3.97) 1.87 (1.40–2.51) 2.97 (2.31–3.83) 2.37 (1.73–3.25) 5.74 (4.21–7.82) 7.01 (4.99–9.84) 2.21 (1.59–3.06) 2.25 (1.62–3.13)
 AllFACE 2.73 (2.29–3.26) 1.89 (1.42–2.53) 2.42 (1.88–3.13) 1.68 (1.26–2.24) 2.11 (1.54–3.12) 2.14 (1.50–3.06) 1.46 (0.92–2.33) 1.50 (0.91–2.45)
Clinical outcome
 HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol) 0.90 (0.80–1.02) 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 0.89 (0.71–1.12) 0.92 (0.70–1.19) 1.00 (0.79–1.28) 1.02 (0.79–1.31)
 BP < 140/80 mmHg 1.24 (1.12–1.37) 1.41 (1.12–1.76) 1.42 (1.17–1.71) 1.55 (1.25–1.92) 1.57 (1.29–1.91) 1.52 (1.23–1.88) 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.81 (0.67–0.98)
 LDL-C < 100 mg/dL 1.05 (0.94–1.17) 1.24 (0.98–1.58) 1.30 (1.07–1.59) 1.19 (0.96–1.47) 1.27 (1.02–1.57) 1.28 (1.03–1.59) 0.84 (0.70–1.01) 0.87 (0.72–1.05)
 AllABC 0.93 (0.79–1.12) 1.25 (0.86–1.82) 1.37 (0.99–1.87) 1.28 (0.90–1.84) 1.05 (0.75–1.46) 1.06 (0.74–1.52) 0.77 (0.57–1.05) 0.72 (0.52–1.01)
A combination
 All7Q 1.33 (1.01–1.78) 1.22 (0.74–2.00) 1.43 (0.91–2.24) 1.23 (0.76–1.99) 2.01 (1.12–3.63) 1.91 (1.06–3.46) 1.26 (0.74–2.14) 1.26 (0.72–2.20)
 Num7Qb 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 1.09 (1.03–1.14) 1.06 (1.00–1.11) 1.12 (1.05–1.18) 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.03 (0.99–1.08)
  1. aGeneral medical clinics are as reference category
  2. bNum7Q count is relative risk
  3. Abbreviations: n number, AOR Adjusted odd ratio, ARR adjusted relative risk, CI confident interval, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, BP blood pressure, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ABC A-HbA1c, B- BP, C-LDL-C, GMCs general medical clinics, SDCs specialist diabetes clinics