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Table 3 Multivariate multilevel logistic regression for a combination of processes of care and clinical targets

From: A combination of process of care and clinical target among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in general medical clinics and specialist diabetes clinics at hospital levels

Factor Processes of care Clinical targets A combination
HbA1c exam LDL-C exam Eye exam Foot exam AllFACE HbA1c BP LDL-C AllABC All7Q Num7Q
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI)
Specialist clinics 3.60 (2.23–5.80) 0.97 (0.63–1.51) 1.14 (0.88–1.48) 1.87 (1.40–2.51) 1.89 (1.42–2.53) 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 1.41 (1.12–1.76) 1.24 (0.98–1.58) 1.25 (0.86–1.82) 1.22 (0.74–2.00) 1.06 (1.01–1.11)
Female - - 1.20 (1.12–1.29) 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 1.11 (1.03–1.21) 0.88 (0.82–0.96) 1.21 (1.14–1.29) 0.74 (0.69–0.79) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) - -
Age [10 years] - 0.96 (0.91–1.02) - - - 1.42 (1.36–1.48) 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 1.32 (1.23–1.41) 1.31 (1.21–1.42) 1.02 (1.01–1.03)
Buddhism - 1.08 (0.77–1.52) - - 1.15 (0.90–1.48) 1.17 (0.93–1.49) - 1.40 (1.14–1.73) 1.30 (0.86–1.96) - -
Duration [5 years] - 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 1.09 (1.05–1.13) 1.10 (1.05–1.14) 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 0.68 (0.65–0.71) 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.84 (0.78–0.90) 0.87 (0.79–0.96) -
Hypertension - 1.17 (1.05–1.32) -   0.68 (0.33–1.02) 1.25 (1.15–1.36) 0.50 (0.47–0.53) 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.90 (0.78–1.03) - -
Scheme p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 - p < 0.001 p < 0.001 - -
Civil servant 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 0.85 (0.78–0.94) 0.76 (0.69–0.84) 0.86 (0.77–0.95) 1.23 (1.11–1.36) - 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.20 (1.02–1.41) - -
Social security 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.77 (0.58–1.04) 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.81 (0.66–1.01) 0.78 (0.61–0.98) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) - 0.93 (0.77–1.13) 1.01 (0.69–1.48) - -
Other 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) 1.11 (1.01–1.21) 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) - 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 1.05 (0.89–1.24) - -
BMI [kg/m2] p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
18.5–22.9 0.97 (0.79–1.20) 1.01 (0.77–1.31) 1.26 (1.04–1.51) 1.15 (0.95–1.40) 1.20 (0.97–1.48) 1.00 (0.82–1.23) 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 1.01 (0.75–1.37) 1.10 (0.72–1.68) 0.99 (0.95–1.03)
23.0–24.9 1.12 (0.91–1.39) 1.16 (0.89–1.52) 1.26 (1.05–1.52) 1.22 (1.00–1.49) 1.27 (1.02–1.58) 0.90 (0.74–1.12) 0.67 (0.56–0.79) 0.80 (0.67–0.96) 0.82 (0.60–1.11) 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 0.97 (0.93–1.01)
25.0–29.9 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 1.26 (1.05–1.51) 1.12 (0.92–1.36) 1.23 (1.00–1.52) 0.80 (0.66–0.99) 0.55 (0.47–0.65) 0.79 (0.67–0.95) 0.74 (0.54–0.99) 0.79 (0.52–1.20) 0.96 (0.92–1.00)
> = 30.0 1.10 (0.88–1.38) 1.22 (0.91–1.62) 1.35 (1.11–1.64) 1.27 (1.03–1.57) 1.45 (1.16–1.81) 0.82 (0.67–1.03) 0.42 (0.35–0.50) 0.75 (0.62–0.90) 0.60 (0.42–0.85) 0.66 (0.41–1.06) 0.94 (0.90–0.99)
Hospital type p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Provincial 0.36 (0.12–1.03) 0.52 (0.20–1.37) 0.50 (0.19–1.32) 0.40 (0.13–1.21) 0.15 (0.05–0.43) 0.95 (0.62–1.48) 0.72 (0.50–1.03) 0.81 (0.57–1.14) 0.85 (0.50–1.42) 0.39 (0.17–0.88) 0.93 (0.86–0.99)
Community 0.34 (0.13–0.87) 0.57 (0.24–1.37) 0.25 (0.11–0.60) 1.24 (0.47–3.32) 0.20 (0.08–0.50) 0.84 (0.56–1.26) 1.29 (0.93–1.79) 0.77 (0.56–1.05) 1.02 (0.64–1.64) 0.43 (0.20–0.91) 0.98 (0.92–1.05)
HospitalaClinics p < 0.001 p = 0.36 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.8 p < 0.001 p < 0.05 p = 0.07 p = 0.36 p = 0.09
SDCs: Provincial 0.59 (0.34–1.03) 1.00 (0.56–1.76) 1.83 (1.23–2.73) 2.72 (1.73–4.27) 2.83 (1.66–4.81) 0.99 (0.67–1.46) 1.10 (0.81–1.50) 1.03 (0.73–1.45) 0.88 (0.51–1.51) 1.68 (0.75–3.72) 1.05 (0.98–1.13)
SDCs: Community 0.26 (0.15–0.47) 1.38 (0.79–2.43) 2.20 (1.45–3.33) 1.19 (0.76–1.87) 1.28 (0.78–2.11) 1.09 (0.76–1.56) 0.58 (0.44–0.78) 0.70 (0.52–0.95) 0.59 (0.36–0.95) 1.00 (0.48–2.08) 0.97 (0.91–1.04)
  1. aGeneral medical clinics are as reference category
  2. Abbreviations: n number, AOR adjusted odd ratio, ARR adjusted relative risk, CI confident interval, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, BP blood pressure, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ABC A-HbA1c, B- BP, C-LDL-C, GMCs general medical clinics, SDCs specialist diabetes clinics, CSMB civil servant medical benefit, BMI, body mass index