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Table 4 Recommendations to improve private practitioner participation in disease surveillance

From: From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance

  National government level No of Studies (%)
1 Registration and regulation of the private sector [11, 22, 28, 31, 45, 52]
Involvement of wide range of healthcare providers [11, 22, 27]
9 (22.5%)
2 Standardized reporting procedures with roles and responsibilities clearly stated [11, 22, 31, 33, 46, 51, 57]
Unified recording and reporting system [48]
8 (20%)
3 Financial (earmarked funds for private sector) and human resource assistance from public sector [17, 31, 52, 55] and funds for training [14, 21, 23, 40] 8 (20%)
4 Establish surveillance legislation/legal frameworks [17, 33, 34]
Stakeholder consultation in policy making [34, 42, 46]
6 (15%)
5 Credit point system for participation [33, 36, 49]
Comparable measurable performance indicators and audits [30, 32, 51]
6 (15%)
6 UG and PG medical curricula [15, 28, 29, 51, 57] 5 (12.5%)
7 Mandatory notification [14, 26, 30] 3 (7.5%)
  District and local administrative level  
1 Staff and practitioner training [14, 15, 21, 25, 28,29,30,31, 33, 34, 36, 46, 48,49,50,51,52, 55, 57, 60]
CME [14, 29, 30, 36, 37]
25 (62.5%)
2 Dissemination of information, IEC materials, mass communication campaigns [16, 29, 31, 34, 36, 37, 40, 50, 52, 57, 60] 11 (27.5%)
3 Establish and strengthen formal collaborations [27, 45]
Communication with practitioners [30, 32, 33, 43]
Leadership [59]
Strong and proactive administration [28, 48]
9 (22.5%)
4 Simplified reporting procedure [14, 32, 33, 37, 51, 53, 55] 7 (17.5%)
5 IMA (interface organizations assistance) [25, 29, 31, 48, 55] 5 (12.5%)
6 Provide reporting forms/appropriate softwares [33, 45, 49] [26] 4 (10%)
  Surveillance program level  
1 Feedback (summary bulletins, review meetings etc.) [11, 16, 17, 26, 27, 31, 45, 46, 52]
Acknowledgement of efforts [14]
10 (25%)
2 Supportive supervision and visits onsite [25, 27, 33, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52] 9 (22.5%)
3 Financial incentives [16, 17, 27, 29, 40, 51]
Reward and penalty system [53]
Non cash incentives [14]
8 (20%)
4 Allow diverse reporting mechanisms to overcome perceived barriers [11, 30, 33, 37, 53, 58] 6 (15%)
5 Technical assistance [31, 45]
Laboratory services [24, 45, 49]
5 (12.5%)
6 Personal contact/ relationship and trust building [27, 33, 34, 37, 46] 5 (12.5%)