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Table 5 Generalized estimating equations

From: Improving patient safety culture in Saudi Arabia (2012–2015): trending, improvement and benchmarking

  Patient safety grade   Number of events reported  
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Patient Safety Culture Composites
 Supervisor/Manager Expectations & Actions Promoting Patient Safety 1.20 (1.19–1.22) <0.001 1.27 (0.91–1.78) 0.162
 Organizational learning and Continuous Improvement 1.66 (1.55–1.77) <0.001 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 0.073
 Teamwork within units 1.61 (1.59–1.62) <0.001 0.82 (0.76–0.89) <0.001
 Communication Openness 1.22 (1.10–1.35) <0.001 0.93 (0.90–0.97) 0.002
 Feedback and Communications About Error 1.50 (1.29–1.74) <0.001 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.282
 Non-punitive Response to Error 1.09 (0.93–1.27) 0.308 0.83 (0.71–0.98) 0.029
 Staffing 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 0.007 0.74 (0.67–0.83) <0.001
 Hospital Management Support for Patient Safety 2.43 (2.09–2.83) <0.001 1.15 (1.08–1.23) <0.001
 Hospital Handoffs & Transitions 1.12 (1.11–1.13) <0.001 1.10 (1.06–1.14) <0.001
 Teamwork Across Hospital Units 1.48 (1.45–1.50) <0.001 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.004
Gender
 Male 1   1  
 Female 0.62 (0.62–0.63) <0.001 1.56 (1.45–1.67) <0.001
Age
 Less than 30 years of age 1   1  
 Between 30 and 45 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.423 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.641
 Between 46 and 55 1.00 (0.72–1.40) 0.995 0.56 (0.46–0.69) <0.001
 Aged above 55 1.28 (1.14–1.42) <0.001 0.40 (0.38–0.43) <0.001
Experience at the hospital
 1 to 2 years 1   1  
 3 to 5 years 0.96 (0.85–1.08) <0.001 1.54 (1.21–1.94) <0.001
 6 to 10 years 0.67 (0.57–0.78) 0.291 1.44 (1.35–1.53) <0.001
 11 to 15 years 1.07 (1.01–1.14) 0.025 1.55 (1.51–1.59) <0.001
 16 to 20 years 0.78 (0.49–1.24) <0.001 2.38 (1.54–3.68) <0.001
 More or equal to 21 years 1.58 (1.55–1.60) 0.463 3.34 (2.53–4.41) <0.001
Highest Degree
 Under High School Level - - 1  
 High school level - - 0.50 (0.19–1.28) 0.148
 Diploma level - - 0.36 (0.12–1.09) 0.070
 Bachelors Degree - - 0.65 (0.26–1.62) 0.354
 Masters Degree - - 0.49 (0.30–0.81) 0.005
 Doctorate Degree - - 0.33 (0.17–0.65) 0.001
Position at the hospital
 Administrator/Manager/Director 1   1  
 Physician 0.50 (0.40–0.64) <0.001 0.43 (0.35–0.51) <0.001
 Specialist 1.65 (0.74–3.67) 0.223 0.32 (0.24–0.43) <0.001
 Coordinator 0.65 (0.65–0.65) <0.001 1.01 (0.58–1.76) 0.964
 Assistant/Aide 1.89 (1.34–2.67) <0.001 0.27 (0.23–0.31) <0.001
 Pharmacist 0.53 (0.52–0.55) <0.001 2.97 (2.30–3.84) <0.001
 Registered Nurse 0.60 (0.57–0.64) <0.001 0.29 (0.17–0.50) <0.001
 Resident/PG/Intern 0.18 (0.14–0.22) <0.001 0.14 (0.11–0.18) <0.001
 Assistant/Clerk/Secretary/Facilitator 0.65 (0.65–0.65) 0.611 1.02 (0.91–1.14) 0.734
 Technician 2.84 (2.49–3.24) <0.001 0.55 (0.53–0.58) <0.001
 Other 1.04 (0.98–1.12) 0.189 0.19 (0.06–0.63) 0.006
Interaction with patients
 No 0.81 (0.74–0.88) <0.001 0.64 (0.54–0.76) <0.001
 Yes 1   1  
Hospital Size
 Small 0.56 (0.56–0.57) <0.001 0.87 (0.87–0.87) <0.001
 Large 1   1