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Table 1 General water and power characteristics of 17 rural healthcare facilities in Rwanda, assessments conducted in 2011 and 2012

From: Water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and quality in rural healthcare facilities in Rwanda

Health center Power source Primary water sourcea Rainwater storage Drinking water treatment methodb Assessments conductedc
A Solar National utility 100 m3 Ceramic filter Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
B Grid National utility 30 m3 Boiling Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
C Grid National utility 13 m3 Ceramic filter Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
D Grid National utility 100 m3 POU chlorination Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
E Grid Local supply (untreated) 11 m3 POU chlorination Baseline 2012
F Grid National utility 20 m3 POU chlorination and ceramic filter Baseline 2012
G Solar Local supply (untreated) 55 m3 POU chlorination and ceramic filter Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
H Solar National utility 30 m3 POU chlorination and ceramic filter Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
I Grid National utility 20 m3 POU chlorination and ceramic filter Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
J Grid Local supply (untreated) 20 m3 POU chlorination Rapid 2011,
Baseline 2012
K Grid Local supply (untreated) 10 m3 POU chlorination Rapid 2011
L Grid National utility 10 m3 POU chlorination Rapid 2011
M Grid National utility 10 m3 POU chlorination Rapid 2011
N Grid National utility 5 m3 No treatment Rapid 2011
O Grid National utility none Ceramic filter Rapid 2011
P Solar Local supply (untreated) 15 m3 No treatment Rapid 2011
Q Solar Local supply (untreated) none Ceramic filter Rapid 2011
  1. aPiped water supplied by the national utility Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC) was surface water treated at centralized facilities, local piped water supply was untreated water piped from protected and unprotected springs. bCeramic filters had two or four candles and 8 L capacity; point of use (POU) chlorination was done in 20 L containers using dilute sodium hypochlorite solution. c Rapid screening assessments consisted of: observation of HCF infrastructure; interview with HCF director; water sample collection and analysis. Baseline assessments consisted of: interviews with HCF staff responsible for facility management, drinking water treatment, cleaning, maintenance and repair of WASH infrastructure, WASH-related record keeping; systematic inspection of WASH infrastructure including latrines and toilets; water sample collection and analysis