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Table 5 Factors associated with patients’ willingness to pay for MMT services. (Unit: 1000 Vietnam Dong)

From: Expanding co-payment for methadone maintenance services in Vietnam: the importance of addressing health and socioeconomic inequalities

  Coef. 95% CI
MMT model (MMT + VCT - ref)   
 Rural MMT-ART-VCT-GH (dropped)   
 Urban MMT-ART-VCT-GH −188*** (−262; −113)
 MMT + Regional poly clinic −174*** (−257; −92)
Educational attainment (Illiterate - ref)
 Elementary 128** (30; 226)
 Secondary 75** (11; 139)
 Vocational 200** (32; 368)
Age groups (18- < 25 - ref)
 40- <45 77* (−7; 162)
Self-reported health problems (vs. No)
 Usual activities −92 (−225; 42)
 Pain/ Discomfort −140*** (−222; −57)
HIV negative vs. positive 75 (−22; 171)
Had outpatient care last year (vs. No) 79** (13; 146)
Historical expenses on opiates (5 levels)
 Highest vs. Lowest 117*** (43; 190)
Sex: female vs. male −238* (−515; 40)
Income per capita (Lowest - ref)
 Medium 65 (−18; 148)
 High 112*** (32; 192)
 Highest 124*** (45; 204)
 Constant 253*** (172; 334)
  1. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01