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Table 7 Model 4: Association of clinical, demographic and process factors with Prolonged length of stay

From: Length of paediatric inpatient stay, socio-economic status and hospital configuration: a retrospective cohort study

LOS:   >1.8 days (mean) >3 days >24 hours (median)
Characteristic    OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value β co-e 95% CI p value
Demographic Age group (years) 1 and Under 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
2 to 5 0.71 0.59, 0.86 0.001 0.62 0.49, 0.79 <0.001 −0.34 −0.56, −0.11 0.003
6 to 10 0.72 0.54, 0.95 0.019 0.71 0.51, 0.99 0.045 −0.3 −0.61, 0.008 0.056
11 to 16 0.88 0.64, 1.20 0.421 0.58 0.39, 0.86 0.007 −0.31 −0.65, 0.03 0.077
Distance (overall quartiles)* 1st (closest) 1.00 - - 1.00      
2nd 0.70 0.85, 1.31 0.002 0.77 0.58, 1.01 0.059 −0.23 −0.50, 0.03 0.086
3rd 0.82 0.56, 0.88 0.094 0.78 0.59, 1.02 0.073 −0.31 −0.57, −0.05 0.021
4th (furthest away) 0.95 0.75, 1.21 0.707 1.03 0.77, 1.37 0.844 −0.15 −0.43, 0.12 0.271
Clinical Specialty Medical 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
Surgical 0.68 0.48, 0.96 0.030 0.75 0.48, 1.17 0.206 −0.32 −0.68, 0.05 0.088
Diagnosis allergy 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
cardiac 1.21 0.29, 5.10 0.796 0.90 0.18, 4.47 0.902 0.84 −0.86, 2.53 0.332
endocrine 1.25 0.34, 4.70 0.736 1.30 0.29, 5.73 0.729 0.79 −0.77, 2.35 0.321
gastro 0.84 0.26, 2.71 0.765 0.55 0.14, 2.10 0.382 0.02 −1.35, 1.40 0.972
haemoncology 1.81 0.54, 6.09 0.341 1.48 0.37, 5.87 0.576 0.8 −0.62, 2.23 0.270
infection 1.16 0.36, 3.71 0.807 0.61 0.16, 2.32 0.471 0.23 −1.14, 1.60 0.742
MSK 0.69 0.18, 2.61 0.581 0.38 0.08, 1.93 0.245 0.19 −1.35, 1.73 0.809
neurology 0.75 0.23, 2.46 0.631 0.61 0.16, 2.39 0.481 0.23 −1.16, 1.63 0.742
other 0.92 0.26, 3.26 0.891 0.45 0.10, 1.98 0.292 −0.02 −1.51, 1.46 0.976
psychosocial 0.41 0.10, 1.62 0.202 0.27 0.05, 1.60 0.150 −0.24 −1.79, 1.32 0.767
respiratory 1.09 0.34, 3.50 0.885 0.60 0.16, 2.27 0.450 0.27 −1.10, 1.64 0.700
surgical GIT 4.76 1.21, 18.70 0.026 1.88 0.43, 8.29 0.405 1.09 −0.48, 2.66 0.174
trauma 0.46 0.14, 1.52 0.205 0.28 0.07, 1.13 0.073 0.14 −1.25, 1.53 0.845
urogenital 1.32 0.39, 4.44 0.652 0.72 0.18, 2.89 0.647 0.26 −1.16, 1.69 0.720
Maxfax/Dental/ENT 0.97 0.27, 3.53 0.960 0.38 0.08, 1.75 0.212 0.37 −1.10, 1.84 0.621
congenital 1.20 0.14, 10.06 0.863 1.63 0.18, 14.64 0.662 0.18 −2.12, 2.48 0.876
Dermatology 1.55 0.44, 0.96 0.499 0.80 0.19, 3.42 0.769 0.24 −1.26, 1.73 0.756
Admissions per year 1 1.00 - - 1.00 - -    
2 1.01 0.81, 1.25 0.950 1.18 0.91, 1.53 0.217 0.25 0.002, 0.50 0.048
3 1.50 1.07, 2.11 0.020 1.32 0.89, 1.96 0.166 0.24 −0.16, 0.63 0.237
4 or more 1.21 0.89, 1.64 0.228 1.90 1.36, 2.66 <0.001 0.24 −0.12, 0.59 0.194
Process Time of admission 9.00 to 16.59 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
17.00 to 21.59 1.19 0.97, 1.46 0.087 1.32 1.04, 1.68 0.023 0.18 −0.06, 0.41 0.151
22.00 to 08.59 0.61 0.51, 0.75 <0.001 0.81 0.64, 1.03 0.084 −0.46 −0.68, −0.24 <0.001
Day of admission weekday 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
weekend 0.76 0.60, 0.97 0.027 0.72 0.53, 0.97 0.033 −0.17 −0.44, 0.10 0.209
Source of admission elective 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
emergency via ED 4.59 2.80, 7.51 <0.001 2.14 1.97, 3.81 0.010 0.53 0.10, 0.97 0.017
emergency via other 2.34 1.38, 3.97 0.002 1.72 0.93, 3.18 0.084 0.19 −0.30, 0.67 0.452
other 8.68 4.16, 18.14 <0.001 6.96 3.18, 15.23 <0.001 3.01 2.24, 3.79 <0.001
Season of admission spring 1.00 - - 1.00 - - ref - -
summer 0.83 0.66, 10.4 0.113 0.92 0.70, 1.21 0.541 −0.36 −0.62, −0.11 0.006
autumn 1.06 0.85, 1.32 0.607 1.22 0.94, 1.60 0.134 −0.02 −0.27, 0.24 0.887
winter 0.87 0.69, 1.09 0.216 0.97 0.74, 1.28 0.836 −0.18 −0.44, 0.08 0.167
  1. β co-e β co-efficient, CI confidence interval, ED Emergency department, ENT Ears Nose and Throat, GIT Gastrointestinal, IDACI Income deprivation affecting children index, LOS Length of stay, MaxFax Maxillofacial, OR Odds ratio, ref reference category
  2. Model 4: Adjusted for age (groups), gender admission hospital, quartile of IDACI; ethnicity (group), final diagnosis, medical or surgical specialty, number of hospital admissions during the study period, source of admission, weekend or week day admission, season of admission and time of admission (as defined in Tables 1 and 2)