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Table 1 Sample characteristics and proportionsa who were readmitted or died

From: Variation in readmission and mortality following hospitalisation with a diagnosis of heart failure: prospective cohort study using linked data

Variables Total sample 30-day unplanned readmission (%)a 30-day mortality (%)a
n %a
Sociodemographic
 Age (years, at index admission)
  45– < 75 1303 26 20 1.8
  75– < 85 2142 42 22 3.5
   ≥ 85 1629 32 20 5.5
   Mean (SD) 80 (9.4) 80 (8.8) 84 (8.4)
 Sex
  Male 2927 58 22 4.0
  Female 2147 42 19 3.2
 Language other than English
  Yes 559 11 21 3.4
  No 4515 89 21 3.7
 Marital status
  Married 2864 56 20 3.6
  Not married 2210 44 21 3.8
 Region of residence
  Major cities 2535 50 20 4.1
  Regional 1566 31 21 3.5
  Remote 973 19 22 2.9
 Education
  No school certificate 1134 23 21 3.8
  School/Trade certificate, diploma 3211 66 22 3.5
  Tertiary degree 524 11 18 5.0
  Unknown 205    
 Household income (AUD)
   < 20,000 1994 57 31 5.5
  20,000–39,000 914 26 28 5.7
  40,000–69,999 363 10 28 4.8
   ≥ 70,000 220 6.3 26 4.0
  Unknown 1583    
 Private health insurance
  Yes 2131 42 19 3.8
  No 2943 58 22 3.6
Baseline health (self-reported)
 Previous heart disease
  Yes 2408 47 21 3.5
  No 2666 53 20 3.8
 Previous diabetes
  Yes 1213 24 21 3.1
  No 3861 76 21 3.9
 Excellent memory
  Yes 505 10 21 3.0
  No 4569 90 21 3.7
 Physical functioning score
  0– < 75 (severe) 2662 70 28 5.8
   ≥ 75 1127 30 25 2.7
  Unknown 1285    
 Duke Social Support Index
   Mean (SD) 8.7(1.6) 8.6 (1.6) 8.6 (1.7)
 Psychological distress
  Very low 3478 74 22 4.5
  Low 770 16 24 2.2
  Medium 312 6.6 27 4.5
  High 140 3 25 3.1
  Unknown 374    
 BMI
  Underweight 128 2.8 27 7.9
  Normal 1577 35 24 4.8
  Overweight 1616 36 24 3.8
  Obese 1191 26 20 2.3
  Unknown 562    
 Smoking status
  Current smoker 273 5.4 26 5.2
  Ex-smoker 2384 47 21 3.4
  Never smoker 2388 47 20 3.8
  Unknown 29    
 Alcohol (drinks per week)
  None 2230 46 22 3.8
  1–14 drinks 2083 43 22 4.3
   ≥ 15 drinks 522 11 20 2.8
  Unknown 239    
Hospitalisation history (Admitted Patient Data Collection, 6 year prior to baseline)
 Previous CVD
  Yes 4669 92 21 3.6
  No 405 8 15 4.4
 Previous heart failure
  Yes 1176 23 24 4.2
  No 3898 77 20 3.5
 Previous renal disease
  Yes 564 11 26 3.9
  No 4510 89 20 3.6
 Previous anaemia
  Yes 900 18 26 4.6
  No 4174 82 20 3.5
 Previous atrial fibrillation
  Yes 1422 28 22 3.2
  No 3652 72 20 3.8
 Previous dementia
  Yes 73 1.4 18 6.9
  No 5001 99 21 3.6
Hospitalisation history (Admitted Patient Data Collection, 12 months prior to index admission)
 No. of admissions (last 12 months)
   Mean (SD) 1.3 (2.9) 1.9 (5.0) 1.8 (3.4)
 No. of hospital days (last 12 months)
   Mean (SD) 7.0 (15) 9.2 (18) 11 (18)
Index admission characteristics
 Primary diagnosis
  Yes 1973 39 20 2.3
  No 3101 61 21 4.6
 Unplanned admission
  Yes 4180 82 22 3.8
  No 894 18 16 3.2
 Length of stay (days)
  1 450 8.9 18 2.7
  2–6 1922 38 20 2.5
   ≥ 7 2702 53 21 4.7
 Current comorbidity (Charlson Index)
  Minor 2933 58 19 2.7
  Moderate 1403 28 22 4.0
  Severe 738 15 25 6.8
 Length of stay (days)
  Median (IQR) 7 (10) 7 (12) 12 (18)
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital peer group
  Principal referral 2493 49 22 3.4
  Major city 537 11 20 5.0
  District 606 12 21 4.1
  Community 355 7 26 3.4
  Private 900 18 17 3.7
  Others 183 3.6 17 2.7
 Heart failure service
  Yes 1695 33 22 3.6
  No 3379 67 20 3.7
Totals 5074 100 21 3.7
  1. aProportions (%), or means and standard deviations [SD] or median and interquartile range (IQR) for continuous variables. Denominators for percentages are the total known (i.e. non-missing/valid) values