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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for socio-demographic characteristics of women and distribution according to different maternal health care services use in Addis Ababa, 2014 (N = 210)

From: Intimate partner violence and utilization of maternal health care services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Background Characteristics All women
n (%)
At least one ANC % 1st ANC within 1st trimester % Four or more ANC % Tested for HIV % Skilled delivery assistant % Delivery in health facility %
Age in years
18–25 50 (23.8) 98.0 58.0 48.0* 94.0* 92.0 86.0*
26–35 131 (62.4) 94.7 46.6 33.6 84.7 84.7 78.6
36–45 29 (13.8) 93.1 44.8 20.7 69.0 79.3 58.6
Age gap of couples
partner younger or same age as women 21 (10.0) 100.0 61.9 33.3 90.5* 100.0 90.5*
partner older by 1–5 years 73 (34.8) 95.9 50.7 39.7 89.0 84.9 80.8
partner older by 6–10 years 64 (30.5) 96.9 51.6 42.2 90.6 87.5 82.8
partner older by more than 10 years 52 (24.8) 90.4 38.5 21.2 69.2 78.8 61.5
Ethnicity
Amhara 78 (37.1) 96.2 56.4 44.9 87.2 89.7 80.8
Oromo 46 (21.9) 91.3 56.5 23.9 82.6 76.1 67.4
Tigre 22 (12.9) 96.3 40.7 25.9 88.9 81.5 81.5
Other 59 (28.1) 96.6 37.3 35.6 81.4 89.8 79.7
Religion
Orthodox 128 (61.0) 96.9 56.2 39.1 85.9 85.2 77.3
Muslim 56 (26.1) 92.9 35.7 26.8 83.9 89.3 76.8
Other 26 (12.4) 92.3 42.3 34.6 80.8 80.8 80.8
Educational status
no formal education 32 (15.2) 84.4* 12.5* 11.0* 62.5* 62.5* 46.9*
primary school 80 (38.1) 96.2 51.2 35.0 85.0 88.8 78.8
secondaryand above 98 (46.7) 98.0 59.2 46.9 91.8 90.8 86.7
Partner’s educational status
no formal education 20 (9.5) 85.0 15.0* 15.0 60.0* 70.0* 40.0*
primary school 50 (23.8) 94.0 42.0 30.0 80.0 81.0 74.0
secondary and above 140 (66.7) 97.1 56.4 40.0 90.0 89.5 84.3
Employment status
Employed 67 (31.9) 98.5 55.2 44.8* 92.5* 89.6 83.6
Unemployed 143 (68.1) 93.7 46.2 30.8 81.1 83.9 74.8
Household monthly income (ETB)
Low income (</=1000ETB) 73 (34.8) 94.5 43.8 30.1 82.2 82.2 72.6
Middle income (1001–2000ETB) 70 (33.3) 95.7 50.0 34.3 85.7 91.4 81.4
High income (>2000ETB) 67 (31.9) 95.5 53.7 41.8 86.6 83.6 79.1
Couples relationship duration
Less or equal to 4 years 91 (43.3) 97.8 48.4 34.1 96.7* 86.8 79.1
More than 4 years 119 (56.7) 93.3 49.6 36.1 75.6 84.9 76.5
Parity
1 66 (31.4) 95.5 51.5 30.3 90.9 84.8 74.2
2–3 116 (55.2) 94.8 47.4 40.5 82.8 83.6 80.2
4+ 28 (13.3) 96.4 50.0 25.0 78.6 96.4 75.0
Weekly mass media exposure
No exposure to all 31 (14.8) 87.1* 29.0* 3.2* 64.5* 74.2 54.8*
Exposed to one type 77 (36.7) 93.5 46.8 27.3 84.4 83.1 77.9
Exposed to two types 78 (37.1) 98.7 53.8 43.6 91.0 89.7 82.1
Exposed to all three types 24 (11.4) 100.0 66.7 75.0 91.7 95.8 91.7
Women’s decision making autonomy
No involvement in all 12 (5.7) 83.3* 25.0* 16.7 66.7 66.7 50.0
Involved in one 26 (12.4) 84.6 3.8 26.9 73.1 84.6 76.9
Involved in two 31 (14.8) 96.8 22.6 19.4 87.1 74.2 67.7
Involved in three 43 (20.5) 97.7 58.1 44.2 83.7 90.7 88.4
Involved in all four 98 (46.7) 98.0 68.4 40.8 89.8 89.8 79.6
Emotional IPV
No 161 (76.7) 96.9 51.6* 39.8* 88.2* 87.0 80.7*
Yes 49 (23.3) 89.8 40.8 20.4 73.5 81.6 67.3
Physical IPV
No 171 (81.4) 96.5 53.2* 42.1* 89.5* 88.9* 82.5*
Yes 39 (18.6) 89.7 30.8 25.1 64.1 71.8 56.4
Sexual IPV
No 131 (62.4) 96.2 55.0* 44.3* 87.0 88.5 80.9
Yes 79 (37.6) 93.7 39.2 20.3 81.0 81.0 72.2
Partner control
No 65 (31.0) 98.5 60.0* 52.3* 93.8* 93.8* 86.2*
Yes 145 (69.0) 93.8 44.1 27.6 80.7 82.1 73.8
  1. IPV intimate partner violence occurred during the current relationship, ANC, antenatal care; Skilled health providers include doctors, nurses and midwives, Weekly mass media exposure = exposure to TV, Newspaper and Radio at least once a week; Women’s decision making autonomy = women’s participation alone or jointly in decisions regarding their personal health care, large household purchases, daily household purchases and family or relatives visit;  = p < .05 significance level