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Table 6 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models of achievement of ANC4+, SBA and PNC (Complete Continued Care) with various determinants within each of the two waves of PDHS during 2006-2012

From: Continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan: analysis of trends and determinants from 2006 to 2012

Characteristics Model III (ANC4+, SBA and PNC)
PDHS (2006-07) PDHS (2012-13)
Bivariate Multivariate Bivariate Multivariate
OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value
Regions/Provinces
 Baluchistan 1    1    1    1   
 Punjab 4.27 2.91-6.26 <0.01 2.60 1.72-3.95 <0.01 4.90 3.91-6.15 <0.01 2.88 2.21-3.75 <0.01
 Sindh 5.39 3.66-7.93 <0.01 5.36 3.52-8.15 <0.01 6.46 5.13-8.13 <0.01 5.01 3.85-6.52 <0.01
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2.59 1.72-3.92 <0.01 2.20 1.41-3.44 <0.01 2.60 2.04-3.31 <0.01 1.99 1.52-2.62 <0.01
 Gilgit Baltistan - - - - - <0.01 1.95 1.46-2.60 <0.01 1.74 1.25-2.43 <0.01
 Islamabad - - - - - <0.01 20.72 15.64-27.44 <0.01 5.56 3.99-7.74 <0.01
Geographical classification
 Rural 1    1    1    1   
 Urban 4.39 3.76-5.11 <0.01 1.45 1.19-1.76 <0.01 3.35 3.01-3.73 <0.01 1.14 0.98-1.33 0.09
Respondents age
 15-24 years 1    1    1    1   
 25-34 years 1.31 1.10-1.57 <0.01 1.18 0.92-1.51 0.18 1.03 0.91-1.17 0.66 0.91 0.76-1.10 0.34
 35 years and above 0.67 0.53-0.84 <0.01 1.02 0.71-1.46 0.92 0.76 0.65-0.88 <0.01 1.07 0.82-1.41 0.61
Respondents age at first birth
 Less than 20 years 1    1    1    1   
 20-29 years 2.10 1.79-2.46 <0.01 1.28 1.04-1.57 0.02 2.28 2.03-2.55 <0.01 1.26 1.08-1.48 <0.01
 30 years and above 2.11 1.43-3.09 <0.01 1.64 0.98-2.72 0.059 5.38 4.15-6.97 <0.01 1.74 1.19-2.56 <0.01
Respondents educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 2.84 2.27-3.54 <0.01 1.46 1.14-1.88 <0.01 3.32 2.81-3.91 <0.01 1.54 1.28-1.87 <0.01
 Secondary 5.98 4.91-7.29 <0.01 1.92 1.50-2.46 <0.01 7.01 6.07-8.09 <0.01 2.09 1.73-2.52 <0.01
 Higher 17.45 13.69-22.24 <0.01 3.44 2.48-4.77 <0.01 20.05 16.84-23.86 <0.01 3.73 2.92-4.76 <0.01
Husbands educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 1.56 1.18-2.08 <0.01 0.98 0.72-1.33 0.92 2.05 1.67-2.53 <0.01 1.18 0.93-1.49 0.16
 Secondary 3.32 2.68-4.12 <0.01 1.42 1.11-1.83 <0.01 4.11 3.50-4.82 <0.01 1.61 1.33-1.95 <0.01
 Higher 7.67 6.13-9.60 <0.01 1.60 1.20-2.14 <0.01 8.54 7.24-10.08 <0.01 1.60 1.28-2.00 <0.01
Respondents employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 0.63 0.53-0.75 <0.01 1.03 0.83-1.26 0.81 0.64 0.56-0.74 <0.01 0.81 0.68-0.96 0.02
Husbands employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 1.61 1.01-2.60 0.05 1.29 0.76-2.19 0.35 2.13 1.44-3.16 <0.01 1.38 0.87-2.19 0.16
Parity/Number of children
 5 children or more 1    1    1    1   
 3-4 children 2.19 1.78-2.68 <0.01 1.16 0.90-1.49 0.25 2.34 2.02-2.72 <0.01 1.23 1.01-1.50 0.04
 1-2 children 2.81 2.32-3.39 <0.01 1.49 1.11-1.99 0.01 3.96 3.45-4.55 <0.01 1.91 1.51-2.39 <0.01
Respondents autonomy to healthcare decision-making
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 1.77 1.59-1.96 <0.01 1.19 1.04-1.36 0.01
Exposure to mass medias
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 6.35 5.40-7.48 <0.01 1.48 1.21-1.81 <0.01
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1    1    1    1   
 Poorer 1.62 1.09-2.41 0.02 1.55 1.03-2.34 0.03 2.29 1.76-2.97 <0.01 1.53 1.15-2.03 <0.01
 Middle 3.12 2.16-4.50 <0.01 2.51 1.69-3.74 <0.01 3.93 3.07-5.02 <0.01 1.98 1.49-2.64 <0.01
 Richer 6.99 4.96-9.85 <0.01 3.73 2.51-5.56 <0.01 8.92 7.05-11.28 <0.01 2.79 2.07-3.78 <0.01
 Richest 22.48 16.14-31.32 <0.01 7.38 4.83-11.27 <0.01 31.02 24.55-39.19 <0.01 5.37 3.85-7.49 <0.01
Distance from health facility for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 3.30 2.94-3.70 <0.01 1.04 0.85-1.25 0.71
Transport arrangement for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 3.36 3.00-3.75 <0.01 1.11 0.92-1.34 0.26