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Table 5 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models of achievement of ANC4+ and SBA (Continued Care at Delivery) with various determinants within each of the two waves of PDHS during 2006-2012

From: Continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan: analysis of trends and determinants from 2006 to 2012

Characteristics Model II (ANC4+ and SBA)
PDHS (2006/07) PDHS (2012/13)
Bivariate Multivariate Bivariate Multivariate
OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value
Regions/Provinces
 Baluchistan 1    1    1    1   
 Punjab 4.66 3.34-6.51 <0.01 3.06 2.10-4.45 <0.01 4.51 3.65-5.58 <0.01 2.65 2.06-3.42 <0.01
 Sindh 5.22 3.72-7.33 <0.01 5.49 3.76-8.02 <0.01 6.44 5.19-7.99 <0.01 5.45 4.23-7.01 <0.01
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 3.09 2.16-4.42 <0.01 2.74 1.84-4.07 <0.01 2.82 2.26-3.53 <0.01 2.29 1.77-2.96 <0.01
 Gilgit Baltistan - - - - - <0.01 3.91 3.04-5.01 <0.01 4.46 3.32-6.00 <0.01
 Islamabad - - - - - <0.01 25.80 19.46-34.20 <0.01 7.80 5.59-10.89 <0.01
Geographical classification
 Rural 1    1    1    1   
 Urban 4.45 3.88-5.10 <0.01 1.55 1.29-1.85 <0.01 3.55 3.21-3.93 <0.01 1.19 1.02-1.37 0.02
Respondents age
 15-24 years 1    1    1    1   
 25-34 years 1.24 1.05-1.45 0.01 1.16 0.92-1.45 0.21 1.04 0.93-1.18 0.44 1.04 0.87-1.24 0.67
 35 years and above 0.69 0.57-0.85 <0.01 1.08 0.78-1.51 0.64 0.73 0.63-0.85 <0.01 1.09 0.84-1.42 0.51
Respondents age at first birth         
 Less than 20 years 1    1    1    1   
 20-29 years 1.88 1.64-2.16 <0.01 1.12 0.93-1.35 0.22 2.07 1.86-2.31 <0.01 1.16 1.00-1.35 0.05
 30 years and above 2.10 1.49-2.96 <0.01 1.59 0.99-2.54 0.05 4.79 3.70-6.21 <0.01 1.68 1.14-2.47 0.01
Respondents educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 2.89 2.38-3.51 <0.01 1.49 1.20-1.86 <0.01 3.09 2.65-3.61 <0.01 1.42 1.18-1.69 <0.01
 Secondary 6.37 5.33-7.62 <0.01 2.08 1.66-2.60 <0.01 7.46 6.49-8.56 <0.01 2.15 1.80-2.58 <0.01
 Higher 21.37 16.65-27.43 <0.01 4.62 3.35-6.37 <0.01 20.80 17.39-24.88 <0.01 3.48 2.73-4.44 <0.01
Husbands educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 1.64 1.29-2.09 <0.01 1.03 0.79-1.34 0.81 1.94 1.60-2.35 <0.01 1.10 0.89-1.38 0.36
 Secondary 3.44 2.86-4.15 <0.01 1.44 1.16-1.79 <0.01 3.92 3.38-4.54 <0.01 1.45 1.22-1.74 <0.01
 Higher 7.65 6.25-9.35 <0.01 1.56 1.20-2.03 <0.01 8.35 7.15-9.74 <0.01 1.43 1.16-1.77 <0.01
Respondents employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 0.56 0.48-0.66 <0.01 0.89 0.73-1.08 0.23 0.58 0.51-0.67 <0.01 0.76 0.64-0.90 <0.01
Husbands employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 1.20 0.82-1.76 0.34 0.97 0.61-1.51 0.88 1.72 1.22-2.41 <0.01 1.24 0.82-1.87 0.31
Parity/Number of children        
 5 children or more 1    1    1    1   
 3-4 children 1.96 1.64-2.34 <0.01 1.05 0.83-1.31 0.68 2.25 1.96-2.58 <0.01 1.20 0.99-1.45 0.05
 1-2 children 2.60 2.20-3.06 <0.01 1.42 1.09-1.85 <0.01 3.81 3.35-4.34 <0.01 1.99 1.59-2.48 <0.01
Respondents autonomy to healthcare decision-making       
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 1.85 1.68-2.05 <0.01 1.30 1.15-1.48 <0.01
Exposure to mass media
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 5.82 5.04-6.73 <0.01 1.43 1.19-1.71 <0.01
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1    1    1    1   
 Poorer 1.90 1.36-2.66 <0.01 1.72 1.21-2.44 <0.01 2.64 2.10-3.33 <0.01 1.83 1.42-2.36 <0.01
 Middle 3.23 2.35-4.44 <0.01 2.40 1.70-3.40 <0.01 4.03 3.23-5.04 <0.01 2.31 1.78-3.01 <0.01
 Richer 7.87 5.84-10.61 <0.01 3.86 2.73-5.47 <0.01 9.22 7.44-11.42 <0.01 3.52 2.66-4.66 <0.01
 Richest 25.91 19.33-34.73 <0.01 7.57 5.21-10.99 <0.01 31.61 25.42-39.29 <0.01 6.79 4.95-9.31 <0.01
Distance from health facility for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 3.21 2.88-3.58 <0.01 0.94 0.78-1.13 0.53
Transport arrangement for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 3.35 3.01-3.72 <0.01 1.25 1.04-1.49 0.01