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Table 7 Association between Medicare managed care and inpatient mortality for stroke

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 0.931 0.885 0.98 0.978 0.929 1.029 0.969 0.914 1.028 0.979 0.927 1.034
Age 18–64 years 1.126 1.019 1.244 1.144 1.035 1.264 1.134 1.023 1.257 1.144 1.033 1.267
Age 65–74 years REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Age 75–84 years 1.182 1.114 1.254 1.167 1.1 1.239 1.180 1.111 1.255 1.171 1.102 1.243
Age 85+ years 1.614 1.518 1.717 1.574 1.48 1.675 1.589 1.490 1.693 1.561 1.466 1.663
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Female 1.119 1.07 1.169 1.122 1.074 1.173 1.119 1.069 1.171 1.113 1.064 1.165
APRMORT_45002 4.166 3.283 5.286 4.184 3.297 5.31 4.207 3.313 5.341 4.219 3.324 5.356
APRMORT_45003 14.724 11.615 18.665 15.111 11.919 19.157 15.899 12.532 20.172 15.686 12.368 19.895
APRMORT_45004 98.22 77.642 124.25 103.991 82.182 131.59 117.459 92.720 148.798 112.299 88.691 142.192
APRMORT_44001 17.46 13.369 22.805 18.18 13.915 23.751 18.735 14.315 24.520 18.412 14.078 24.081
APRMORT_44002 25.718 20.201 32.743 26.697 20.964 33.998 26.618 20.881 33.932 26.749 20.992 34.085
APRMORT_44003 39.076 30.638 49.837 41.516 32.54 52.969 43.630 34.150 55.743 43.058 33.722 54.979
APRMORT_44004 378.362 298.54 479.52 409.913 323.26 519.8 485.194 381.913 616.405 453.1 356.958 575.137
APRMORT_21XXX 50.851 39.994 64.654 55.519 43.633 70.641 58.799 46.128 74.952 57.445 45.108 73.155
APRMORT_OTHER 22.104 17.3 28.241 23.958 18.742 30.626 25.232 19.713 32.297 24.529 19.177 31.374
Lowest income 0.854 0.802 0.91 0.803 0.753 0.857 0.883 0.816 0.957 0.94 0.868 1.019
Low income 0.883 0.833 0.937 0.815 0.766 0.867 0.922 0.857 0.993 0.953 0.884 1.026
Moderate income 0.944 0.891 1.000 0.916 0.864 0.971 1.000 0.935 1.069 1.025 0.959 1.094
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
0-99 beds     1.251 1.134 1.38     1.348 1.212 1.499
100-299 beds     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
300-499 beds     0.961 0.907 1.019     1.022 0.957 1.091
500+ beds     1.054 0.982 1.131     1.026 0.948 1.11
Nonteaching     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
Teaching     0.862 0.814 0.912     0.86 0.804 0.92
Governmental     1.242 1.149 1.343     1.143 1.048 1.248
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
For-profit     0.799 0.725 0.88     0.776 0.693 0.868
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF       
Medium and small metropolitan     1.115 1.06 1.172       
Nonmetropolitan     1.504 1.366 1.656       
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania