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Table 11 Association between Medicare managed care and inpatient mortality for congestive heart failure

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 0.950 0.904 0.998 0.981 0.933 1.031 Failed to converge 0.946 0.898 0.998
Age 18–64 years 1.009 0.908 1.122 1.028 0.925 1.143    1.058 0.951 1.177
Age 65–74 years REF REF REF REF REF REF    REF REF REF
Age 75–84 years 1.327 1.247 1.413 1.317 1.237 1.402    1.303 1.223 1.387
Age 85+ years 2.022 1.902 2.15 1.996 1.877 2.122    1.935 1.819 2.059
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF    REF REF REF
Female 0.896 0.86 0.933 0.898 0.861 0.935    0.89 0.854 0.928
APRMORT_161xxx 2.388 1.702 3.351 2.56 1.824 3.593    2.694 1.918 3.785
APRMORT_191xxx 7.093 5.329 9.442 7.573 5.687 10.084    8.173 6.133 10.892
APRMORT_194002 2.071 1.583 2.709 2.083 1.592 2.725    2.182 1.667 2.855
APRMORT_194003 7.415 5.69 9.663 7.613 5.842 9.922    8.285 6.354 10.803
APRMORT_194004 37.648 28.903 49.037 39.386 30.232 51.31    45.335 34.775 59.101
APRMORT_OTHER 15.041 11.432 19.789 16.007 12.162 21.066    17.347 13.171 22.846
Lowest income 0.881 0.83 0.935 0.832 0.782 0.885    0.828 0.766 0.894
Low income 0.971 0.919 1.027 0.91 0.859 0.965    0.942 0.878 1.012
Moderate income 0.96 0.908 1.014 0.943 0.891 0.997    1.008 0.946 1.074
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF    REF REF REF
0-99 beds     1.22 1.133 1.314    1.343 1.232 1.464
100-299 beds     REF REF REF    REF REF REF
300-499 beds     0.955 0.904 1.008    0.941 0.885 1.001
500+ beds     1.058 0.987 1.134    1.061 0.981 1.148
Nonteaching     REF REF REF    REF REF REF
Teaching     0.931 0.881 0.983    0.918 0.859 0.98
Governmental     1.137 1.046 1.237    1.012 0.919 1.115
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF    REF REF REF
For-profit     0.921 0.844 1.004    0.929 0.842 1.026
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF      
Medium and small metropolitan     1.005 0.958 1.054      
Nonmetropolitan     1.318 1.218 1.427      
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania