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Table 2 Research variables, survey items and scale measurement (in %) for each variable (N = 97)

From: Are performance measurement systems useful? Perceptions from health care

Research variable name Survey questions addressed to health care managers and variable items Variable measurement Frequency distribution for survey questions (in %)
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strategic Use of Non-Financial Performance Measurement Systems How would you rate the relevance in the use of non-financial PMS in detecting straegic uncertainties within your organizational unit? A score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Extremely unsatisfactory,…, 7 Extremely satisfactory)   2.062 10.309 14.433 29.897 21.649 17.526 4.124
Perceived Managerial Discretion Decision Making: What is your perception about the effectiveness of the non-financial performance system used in providing information with reference to support operational decisions of your unit? Decision making: a score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Extremely unsatisfactory,…, 7 Extremely satisfactory)   2.062 6.186 11.34 11.34 19.588 39.175 10.309
Flexibility: What is your perception on the effectiveness of the non-financial performance system used in providing information with reference to enabling the flexibility/adaptability of your organizational unit? Flexibility: a score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Extremely unsatisfactory,…, 7 Extremely satisfactory)   4.124 6.186 12.371 22.68 22.68 27.835 4.124
Improved Processes Did your organizational unit introduce improved processes during the last three years? A score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Very much less than sector’s average,…, 7 Much greater than sector’s average). 0 if no improved processes have been introduced during the last three years. 18.557 2.062 5.155 9.278 14.433 28.866 18.557 3.093
Tenure Time: How long have you been with the company? Time: respondent has to indicate years and months (0 < "1" ≤ 5 years; 5 < "2" ≤ 10 years; 10 < "3" ≤ 15 years; 15 < "4" ≤ 20 years; 20 < "5" ≤ 25 years; 25 < "6" ≤ 30 years; "7" > 30 years)   40.206 7.216 5.155 7.216 17.526 8.247 10.309
Time actual: How long have you been in the current job? Time actual: respondent has to indicate years and months (0 < "1" ≤ 3 years; 3 < "2" ≤ 6 years; 6 < "3" ≤ 9 years; 9 < "4" ≤ 12 years; 12 < "5" ≤ 15 years; 15 < "6" ≤ 18 years; "7" > 18 years)   38.144 28.866 10.309 9.278 3.093 3.093 3.093
Gender Women/Men managers A dichotomous variable: 0 if respondent is a man and 1 if respondent is a woman. 79.381 20.619       
Environmental Uncertainty Complexity: What is the level of complexity faced in your unit’s environment compared to the average of the sector you belong to? Complexity: A score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Very much less than sector’s average,…, 7 Much greater than sector’s average)   0 0 8.247 24.742 19.588 34.021 13.402
Risk: What is the level of risk faced in your unit’s environment compared to the average of the sector you belong to? Risk: A score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Very much less than sector’s average,…, 7 Much greater than sector’s average)   1.031 4.124 15.464 27.835 30.928 17.526 3.093
Uncertainty: What is the degree of uncertainty faced in your unit’s environment compared to the average of the sector you belong to? Uncertainty: A score from 1 to 7 on a Likert scale (1 Very much less than sector’s average,…, 7 Much greater than sector’s average)   2.062 8.247 7.216 42.268 27.835 10.309 2.062