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Table 5 Results of WHO/INRUD Indicator studies in different countries

From: Assessment of core drug use indicators using WHO/INRUD methodology at primary healthcare centers in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Performance Indicators Study Reference Mean
[54] [14, 58] [55] [6] [41] [28] [48] [42] [36] [49]
Average number of medicines prescribed per patient encounter 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.3 3.0 2.2 2.2 2.4 3.1 2.5
Percent medicines prescribed by generic name 74.0 61.2 5.1 95.4 75.5 63.1 99.0 79.4 99.8 10.1 66.3
Percent encounters with an antibiotic prescribed 37.0 32.2 60.9 39.2 35.4 54.2 43.0 24.9 66.0 33.0 42.6
Percent encounters with an injection prescribed 11.0 2.0 1.2 9.9 19.0 38.0 18.0 10.6 2.4 2.4 11.4
Percent medicines prescribed from EML 78.0 99.2 93.0 95.4 87.1 75.6 98.8 90.3 99.7 65.2 88.2
Average consultation time (minutes) 5.8 7.3 3.9 7.1 3.6 6.1 3.7 6.2 4.4 2.3 5.0
Average dispensing time (seconds) 17.0 100 28.8 47.4 39.9 18.1 37.0 78.0 234 258 85.8
Percent medicines actually dispensed 66.0 99.6 81.8 95.9 91.6 99.1 84.5 83.4 100 81.0 88.3
Percent medicines adequately labeled 63.0 10.0 91.4 0.0 87.6 55.9 86.2 70.1 0.0 99.4 56.4
Percent patients with knowledge of correct doses 54.0 79.3 77.7 94.0 96.1 86.5 81.7 72.1 55.0 74.3 77.1
Availability of EML to practitioners 50.0 90.0 100 80.0 100 100 100 50.0 100 100 87
Percent key medicines available 55.0 59.2 80.0 78.3 100 91.7 86.5 65.0 86.6 84.0 78.6
  1. EML Essential Medicines List; Study number 29 was in Brazil; 14,30 in Saudi Arabia; 31in Jordan; 6 in Egypt; 32 in Tanzania; 28 in Swaziland; 33 in Mozambique; 34 in Ethiopia; 35 in Cambodia; 36 in India