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Table 2 Ward summaries: PMOS domain scores and patient reported safety concerns at baseline, and at 6 months

From: The patient reporting and action for a safe environment (PRASE) intervention: a feasibility study

  Ward A (Control) Ward B (Intervention) Mean (SD) Ward C (Intervention) Mean (SD) Ward D (Intervention) Mean (SD) Ward E (Control) Mean (SD) Ward F (Intervention) Mean (SD) Summary – Control Mean (SD)c Summary – Intervention Mean (SD)c
Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months Baseline 6 months
Dignity & respecta Mean (SD) 4.47 (0.61) 4.19 (0.93) 4.54 (0.76) 3.75 (1.37) 4.19 (0.68) 4.30 (0.47) 4.45 (1.05) 4.38 (0.61) 4.25 (0.71) 4.45 (0.60) 4.00 (1.09) 4.10 (1.02) 4.36 (0.16) 4.32 (0.18) 4.29 (0.25) 4.14 (0.29)
Access to resourcesb Mean (SD) 3.85 (0.60) 4.16 (0.31) 3.93 (0.55) 3.94 (0.34) 3.80 (0.40) 3.55 (0.40) 4.08 (0.49) 3.86 (0.44) 4.00 (0.24) 3.69 (0.38) 4.07 (0.52) 3.89 (0.32) 3.93 (0.11) 3.91 (0.35) 3.97 (0.13) 3.81 (0.18)
Communication & teamworkingb Mean (SD) 4.07 (0.50) 4.18 (0.40) 4.10 (0.40) 3.96 (0.58) 3.92 (0.48) 3.99 (0.43) 4.10 (0.57) 4.16 (0.31) 4.14 (0.25) 3.94 (0.48) 4.02 (0.65) 3.94 (0.44) 4.10 (0.05) 4.06 (0.17) 4.03 (0.08) 4.01 (0.10)
Delaysb Mean (SD) 3.29 (1.16) 4.18 (0.46) 3.83 (0.69) 3.14 (0.99) 2.89 (0.91) 3.44 (0.64) 4.03 (0.62) 3.97 (0.76) 3.73 (0.78) 3.75 (0.79) 3.53 (0.90) 3.36 (0.95) 3.51 (0.31) 3.94 (0.33) 3.57 (0.49) 3.49 (0.36)
Equipmentb Mean (SD) 4.24 (0.50) 4.21 (0.40) 3.82 (0.64) 3.84 (0.35) 3.83 (0.47) 3.91 (0.32) 4.10 (0.74) 4.10 (0.39) 4.03 (0.34) 4.03 (0.40) 4.19 (0.68) 3.97 (0.58) 4.13 (0.15) 4.11 (0.13) 3.98 (0.19) 3.96 (0.11)
Information Flowb Mean (SD) 3.71 (0.74) 3.95 (0.57) 3.87 (0.62) 3.84 (0.64) 3.76 (0.42) 3.61 (0.86) 3.89 (0.54) 3.82 (0.49) 3.78 (0.85) 3.68 (0.60) 3.75 (0.65) 3.74 (0.57) 3.75 (0.47) 3.81 (0.20) 3.82 (0.07) 3.75 (0.10)
Organisation & care planningb Mean (SD) 3.94 (0.63) 4.16 (0.43) 4.00 (0.54) 3.83 (0.57) 3.86 (0.54) 3.98 (0.50) 4.06 (0.65) 3.97 (0.44) 4.04 (0.57) 3.86 (0.38) 3.84 (0.63) 3.85 (0.63) 3.99 (0.07) 3.99 (0.24) 3.94 (0.11) 3.91 (0.09)
Staff roles & responsibilitiesb Mean (SD) 3.39 (0.90) 3.65 (0.77) 3.27 (0.90) 3.54 (0.74) 3.52 (0.77) 3.42 (0.88) 3.56 (0.96) 3.39 (0.76) 3.85 (0.60) 3.11 (1.07) 3.27 (0.95) 3.32 (0.91) 3.62 (0.32) 3.40 (0.35) 3.41 (0.16) 3.41 (0.09)
Staff trainingb Mean (SD) 3.75 (1.05) 4.23 (0.39) 3.63 (0.85) 3.90 (0.43) 3.87 (0.33) 3.69 (0.84) 3.97 (0.89) 3.97 (0.28) 4.08 (0.46) 3.83 (0.79) 4.03 (0.72) 4.03 (0.13) 3.92 (0.24) 4.06 (0.24) 3.87 (0.18) 3.88 (0.14)
Ward type & layout2 Mean (SD) 3.68 (0.70) 3.86 (0.64) 3.70 (0.59) 3.48 (0.60) 3.49 (0.37) 3.67 (0.46) 4.03 (0.59) 3.77 (0.51) 4.00 (0.48) 3.82 (0.52) 3.79 (0.55) 3.81 (0.26) 3.84 (0.23) 3.85 (0.03) 3.76 (0.22) 3.68 (0.14)
PMOS overall scoreb Mean (SD) 3.73 (0.59) 4.18 (0.36) 3.72 (0.32) 3.70 (0.39) 3.65 (0.38) 3.70 (0.27) 4.05 (0.39) 3.89 (0.26) 3.90 (0.28) 3.73 (0.36) 3.80 (0.51) 3.82 (0.32) 3.81 (0.12) 3.95 (0.32) 3.80 (0.18) 3.78 (0.09)
No. of patient reported safety concerns 6 1 7 17 6 35 16 8 8 9 15 19 7 5 11 20
No. of patients reporting one or more concerns 3 1 3 8 4 12 6 7 5 5 8 8 4 3 6 9
No. of reports per patient recruited 0.3 0.05 0.27 0.85 0.29 1.75 0.73 0.4 0.4 0.45 0.71 0.95 0.35 0.25 0.5 0.93
Average severity 1.5 4 9 8 7 7 7 5 6 7 6 6 3.75 5.5 7.5 6.5
Range of severity 1-2 - 8-10 5-10 5-10 2-10 1-10 2-8 2-8 3-9 3-10 2-9 - - - -
Average preventabilityd Definitely yes, definitely no Probably yes Definitely yes Probably yes Definitely yes Probably yes Definitely yes Probably not Definitely yes Probably yes Probably yes Probably not - - - -
  1. aDignity & respect is a one item measure, and is not included within a PMOS domain, nor within the overall PMOS score. It is used for interpretive purposes for ward staff during the action planning process
  2. bFigures represent mean scores, calculated on the basis of two or more responses per domain (where the domain is more than two items). The PMOS overall score represents the mean score across all nine domains. SD refers to standard deviation
  3. cThis figure represents a cluster-level mean
  4. dDue to the ordinal nature of this variable, the average is presented using the median, and no summary cluster-level averages are presented for the intervention and control wards