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Table 5 Methods of assessment and enhancement of fidelity of receipt

From: Methods used to address fidelity of receipt in health intervention research: a citation analysis and systematic review

Reference (first author) Intervention recipients Brief intervention description BCC definitions of receipt Other Methods used to address receipt
Understanding Performance of skill   
Assess Enhance Assess Enhance Multicultural factors Other assessment of receipt
1Asenlof [44] People with Pain Individually tailored behavioural medicine intervention      Intervention content Intervention session records collected
Participants’ individual working sheets collected to examine session content
2Battaglia [65] People with PTSD Telehealth tobacco cessation program + PTSD Health Buddy program + motivational interviewing telephone counselling     Satisfaction Self-report Questionnaire
3 Blaakman [66] Caregivers of children with asthma Tailored nurse led Motivational Interviewing intervention       Engagement Review of audiotapes and of nurses’ field notes
Questionnaire to assess satisfaction
4 Black [25] Adult caregivers Program to promote caregiver capacity to manage future goals     Behavioural change Documentation of changes in care plan
Verbal verification of understanding of changes
Self-monitoring of behaviour changes
5 Bruckenthal [47] Patients with chronic knee pain Coping skills training for pain    Homework completion Demonstration and practice of skills reviewed during intervention sessions
6 Carpenter [48] Adult menopausal women Deep breathing training and practice supported with CD or DVD   Successful attempts to contact participants Number of participants not reached
Number of participants requiring media player to play intervention materials
Availability of hardware to play intervention materials
Observation of demonstration of breathing behaviours
Assessment of ability to complete practice log
7 Chee [28] Caregivers of people with dementia Skill-building intervention       Contacts with participants Log of contacts
Log of problem areas addressed
Problem areas addressed in intervention
8 Culloty [75] Mental health professionals Cognitive-behavioural therapy supervisor training     Acceptability Direct observations (video-taped) of sessions delivered rated by evaluator against Process
Evaluation of Training and Supervision (PETS) form
Training Acceptability Rating Scale (TARS) questionnaire
Focus group interviews (1/7 questions on receipt)
9 Delaney [61] Homecare professionals Training on late life depression screening and interventions      Self-efficacy (with regards to performance of intervention skills) Knowledge, self-efficacy, attitude questionnaires in relation to intervention content
Attitude following workshop  
10 Dyas [50] Adult patients with difficulty sleeping and healthcare professionals Training practitioners to deliver problem-focused therapy, patients’ needs and preferences, and sleep consultation video      Intervention received Individual interviews on experiences using intervention, intervention received and understanding
11 Eaton [51] Adult breast cancer survivors Web-based cognitive behavioural stress management (CBSM) intervention      Use of intervention materials Website monitoring of chapter completion
Self reported computer skills
12 Ford [29] African American, Latina, and Arab women Education on breast and cervical cancer      Individual questionnaire items
13 Kilanowski [31] Children Education on healthy eating and physical activity     Attendance Attendance log
Knowledge of nutrition/physical activity questionnaire (CATCH)
14 Michie [54] Adults at increased risk of diabetes Multi-faceted intervention to increase physical activity      Behaviour change and/or maintenance Self-report (audiotapes)
15 Millear [77] Adult employees Strengths-based resilience-building programme.       Receptivity to carrying out intervention skills in daily life Self-report (questionnaire items)
16 Minnick [67] Medical practices The intervention, involved: 1. Joining/forming the team, 2. Assessment, 3. Population focused, care, 4. Process, standardisation,5. Team building, 6. Advanced VIP activities, 7. Ongoing VIP work, 8. Second assessment      Accuracy of recall of intervention content (comparison of participants’ recall with deliverers’ recall) Self-report of intervention content (reports and interviews)
17 Pretzer-Aboff [33] People with Parkinson’s Based on social cognitive theory. Aim to increase self-efficacy and outcome expectations, improve physical functioning and activity and ultimately mood and quality of life.      Direct observation of participants
18 Resnick [36] Residents and nurses in Assisted Living communities Intervention components: (1) Environment and policy/procedure assessments; (2) Education; (3). Developing function-focused goals; and (4). Mentoring and motivating     Perceived effects of exposure to intervention Focus groups and meetings
19 Resnick [37] Residents and direct care workers (DCW) in Assisted Living communities Intervention components: (1) Environment and policy/procedure assessments; (2) Education; (3) Developing function-focused goals; and (4) Mentoring and motivating       Self-report of knowledge of intervention content (questionnaire)
20 Resnick [35] Nursing assistants (NAs) and nursing home residents Educational programme: sessions addressed the philosophy of restorative care, taught ways to integrate restorative care into daily functional tasks with residents (e.g., bathing, dressing), taught the NAs how to motivate residents to engage in restorative care activities, and defined for the NAs a restorative care interaction and taught them how to document restorative care activities on a daily basis.      Self-report of knowledge of intervention content (questionnaire)
21 Resnick [34] Older women post hip fracture The Exercise Plus Program is a self-efficacy-based intervention to increase exercise. The trainer identifies short- and long-term goals, provides verbal encouragement, and education about exercise      Direct observation of participants by evaluator using checklist
22 Resnick [56] Adult stroke patients Task orientated treadmill based aerobic exercise intervention   Attendance Attendance log
Direct observation of participants with checklist
23 Robb [57] Adolescents/young adults (AYA) undergoing stem cell transplant Therapeutic music video intervention that uses song writing and video production to encourage self-reflection and communication skills   Engagement Active questioning
Observation of behavioural indicators of participant engagement
24 Robbins [73] School girls not meeting national guidelines for physical activity Motivational interviewing counselling sessions to increase physical activity      Attendance Attendance logs
Audio recordings of all counselling sessions; content evaluated against checklist
25 Shaw [63] Adults attending a weight management programme SMS text messaging intervention to promote sustained weight loss following a structured weight loss programme       Acceptability Self-report of acceptability on intervention via semi-structured interviews
26 Smith [58] Patients with type 2 diabetes Peer support intervention with suggested themes and small structured components       Attendance Attendance logs
27 Stevens [39] Rehabilitation team Rehabilitation team-training intervention to help members of the rehabilitation team gain knowledge and use the new team-functioning skills. Involved: (1) general skills training in team process (e.g., team effectiveness and problem solving strategies) (2) informational feedback (e.g., action plans to address team-process problems and a summary of team-functioning characteristics), and (3) telephone and videoconference consultation (e.g., advice on implementation of action plans and facilitation of team-process skills)     Active participation in workshop exercises and discussions Notes and comments based on observation of sessions
Confirmation of receipt of materials from intervention sites
Receipt of written intervention materials
Self-report in feedback evaluation forms
Feedback on workshop
28 Teri [78] Direct care and leadership staff Training program designed to teach direct care staff in assisted living facilities to improve care of residents with dementia. Staff are taught to use the activators, behaviours, and consequences (ABC) approach to reduce affective and behavioural problems in residents with dementia by identifying factors within the environment and staff-resident interactions that can altered.      Checklists and notes
29 Waxmonsky [64] Providers at community based clinical practices Standard REP includes an intervention package consisting of an outline, a treatment manual and implementation guide, a standard training program, and as-needed technical assistance. Enhanced REP added customisation of the treatment manual and ongoing, proactive technical assistance from internal and external facilitators.      Attendance Attendance logs
Record of intervention contacts (number and length)
30 Weinstein [41] Women and their live born children The interventions utilised either brief     Satisfaction Self-report in a feedback questionnaire
Motivational Interviewing
(MI) or traditional Health Education (HE) to provide oral health education, assist women to adopt behaviours associated with optimal oral health, and to seek professional dental care for themselves and their young children.
Use of standardised protocols/manuals to enhance understanding and performance (no assessment)
31 Yamada [42] Council members and the health care professionals employed in the NICU Using knowledge transfer strategies to improve use of pain management strategies in hospitalised infants in neo-natal ICU       Acceptability Self-report of usefulness of implemented intervention strategies (questionnaire)
Barriers and facilitators to implementation of intervention strategies (meetings)
32 Yates [43] Adult CABG patients and spouses participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) Patients in both groups participated in the full CR program (comprehensive risk reduction, exercise sessions, and educational classes). Spouses/partners in the PaTH intervention group attended CR with the patient and participated in exercise sessions and educational classes to make the same positive changes in exercise and diet (Therapeutic Lifestyle Change [TLC] Diet recommended by the American Heart Association). Spouses in the usual care group were invited to attend the educational sessions that were part of the CR program.       Attendance Attendance logs
33 Zauszniewski [45] Grandmothers who were raising grandchildren Personal and social resourcefulness skills training.     Use of skills learnt during intervention Self-report of use of resourcefulness skills (questionnaire)
Self-report of skills learnt and used (qualitative- daily journals/voice recordings)
34 Arends [68] Workers aged between 18–63 years, diagnosed with a common mental disorder. Evidence-based guideline directed at structuring physicians’ treatment to help sick-listed workers with mental health problems to return to work, using strategies such as problem-solving.       Intervention components completed Self-report of number of assignments completed (questionnaire)
Intervention content received Self-report of topics discussed (questionnaire)
35 Bjelland [59] 11–12 year olds Intervention aimed at reducing intake of sugarsweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour in adolescent school children.       Exposure Self-report of awareness of intervention components, receipt of and exposure to intervention materials (questionnaire)
Self-report of satisfaction (questionnaire)
Receipt of intervention materials
36 Boschman [60] Construction workers Intervention aimed at detecting signs of workrelated health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning.      Recall of intervention-related advice Self-report (questionnaire)
Intention to act on intervention advice
37 Branscum [26] YMCA-sponsored after school programs Knowledge and theory-based childhood obesity prevention intervention implemented in afterschool programs. The knowledge-based intervention chose program activities to mediate behaviour change solely based on building awareness and knowledge, such as being aware of the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables. The theory- based intervention used theory-oriented program activities to mediate behaviour change such as taking small achievable steps for learning and mastering new skills. Both interventions also included aspects of making and reading comic books “Comics for Health.”       Feasibility Self-report (questionnaire)
38 Brice [27] Families with recent live births Infant and child safety focused intervention targeting fire risks, water temperature, electricity, crib hazards, and firearms, as well as potential injuries associated with stairways, pools, and cars. Intervention strategies included the home safety assessment, one-on-one education and counseling, on-site home modifications, further recommendations, and referrals.      Satisfaction Self-report (questionnaire)
39 Broekhuizen [46] Individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia Tailored lifestyle intervention aiming to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by promoting a healthy lifestyle. Included: improving awareness of CVD risk, motivational interviewing, and computer-tailored lifestyle advice.       Use of (Web) materials Logins
Website monitoring of module completion
40 Coffeng [74] Employees Group motivational interviewing combined with environmental changes to the physical workplace.       Attendance Self-report of attendance to intervention sessions and use of intervention components (questionnaire)
Use of intervention components  
41 Cosgrove [49] Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD Pulmonary rehabilitation programme that provides patients with disease-specific information and teaches self-management skills through the practical application of activities. Includes: educational materials and resources for both health professionals and patients).      Acceptability Self-report of acceptability of intervention (questionnaire)
Self-report of satisfaction with educational component (questionnaire)
42 Devine [69] Female employees Locally adapted obesity prevention intervention involving goal setting, self-monitoring, modelling, and feedback on behaviour.       Intervention content received Self-report of experiences with intervention and influencing factors (semi-structured interviews and focus groups)
43 Fagan [62] Youth communities The Communities That Care (CTC) operating system provides a planned and structured framework for diverse community partners to utilise advances in prevention science. Includes:, (a) assessing community readiness to undertake collaborative prevention efforts; (b) forming diverse and representative prevention coalitions); (c) using community-level epidemiologic data to assess prevention needs; (d) choosing evidence-based prevention policies, practices, and programs and (e) implementing new innovations with fidelity.      Responsiveness Self-report of understanding and participation (questionnaire)
44 Gitlin [70] Caregivers for patients with dementia Occupational therapists assess specific needs, concerns, and challenges of caregivers, the physical and social environment, caregiver management approaches, and dementia patient functionality. Involves environmental simplification, communication, task simplification, engaging patient in activities, and stress reduction, and five key treatment principles: client centered; problem solving; tailoring; action-oriented and cultural relevance.     Adequate number of sessions received and skills learnt Self-report (questionnaire)
Treatment received with respect  
45 Goenka [30] Adolescent Students (6th and 8th Grade) Intervention involving multiple education sessions, school posters, and parent postcards focused on imparting behavioral skills and contextual knowledge to decrease children’s susceptibility to taking up tobacco in the future.     Enjoyment and communication skills during intervention delivery Self-report of enjoyment in teaching, communication skills with participants, ease of use of handbook materials, confidence in using intervention strategies (questionnaire)
Confidence in using intervention materials and principles Self-report on participants’ enjoyment, ease of use of materials, participation and absorption (questionnaire)
Students’ absorption, engagement, participation, ease of use of program materials
46 Jonkers [52] Chronically ill elderly patients Minimal psychological intervention to reduce depression in chronically ill elderly persons involving self-monitoring, exploration of links between cognition, mood and behaviour, and action-planning.       Engagement Self-report of ability to understand and implement intervention principles (questionnaire)
Intention to implement intervention
Self-report of adherence to previous intervention commitments (checklist)
Adherence to commitments made
Self-report of intention to implement intervention behaviours in daily life (questionnaire)
Self-report of satisfaction with intervention (questionnaire)
47 Lee-Kwan [71] Customers of restaurants serving unhealthy foods in deprived areas A culturally appropriate health eating health promotion intervention in restaurants serving foods high in calories in low-income urban areas.     Exposure to intervention materials Self-report of exposure to intervention (survey) examining whether intervention materials were seen and whether this impacted behaviour
Behavioural change following exposure  
48 Lisha [76] Adolescent high school Students A drug prevention programme, with and without combined motivation interviewing.       Attendance Attendance records
49 McCreary [53] HIV patients The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10–12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer leaders working in pairs       Engagement in group sessions Observations of group sessions and ratings assigned on indicators of engagement (checklist items)
Self-report on observations (qualitative comments)
50 Nakkash [55] Currently married women, aged 18–49, reporting symptoms of medically unexplained vaginal discharge and low to moderate common mental disorders Psychosocial intervention package targeting the reporting of medically unexplained vaginal discharge and common mental disorders (depression and/or anxiety). Involves progressive muscle relaxation/guided imagery exercises and weekly structured support groups.       Satisfaction Self-report of participants’ involvement and participation in intervention sessions (questionnaire)
Level of involvement Self-report of satisfaction with intervention (questionnaire)
51 Naven [84] Health visitors Distribution programmes involved the distribution of free fluoride toothpaste and a toothbrush to all children in Scotland at the age of 8 months, and targeted distribution to ‘at risk’ children aged 1–3 years in areas of deprivation       Receipt of information on intervention requirements Self-report of receipt of information on intervention requirements (item in survey)
52 Pbert [72] Adolescent (13-17years) smokers/non-smokers/former smokers Smoking prevention and cessation intervention tailored to the stage of smoking acquisition of adolescents combined, with peer counselling focusing on the social aspects of smoking and development of the ability to resist social pressures to smoking.       Occurrence of possible intervention steps Self-report of intervention steps received
53 Potter [32] Students Increase children’s exposure to a variety of fruit and vegetables by distributing free fresh or dried fruit and fresh vegetable snacks to all students during the school day. Teachers and school staff were allowed to eat the snacks to serve as role models. Nutrition education and promotion activities were encouraged but not required.       Reactions to program Self-report of reactions to program (focus groups with separate groups)
54 Skara [38] Adolescent high school Students Combined cognitive perception information and behavioural skills curriculum in a high school to prevent drug abuse.       Responsiveness to program Self-report of responsiveness to program (questionnaire)
55 Teel [40] Older spouse caregivers of individuals with dementia Intervention targeting healthy habits, selfesteem, communication, and self-care strategies in older adults. Included practicing healthy habits, building self-esteem, focusing on the positive, avoiding role overload, communicating, and building meaning. Specific self-care strategies were explored in the context of an individual’s experiences, relationships, and condition.      Adequacy of communication methods used in intervention Self-report on helpfulness of intervention to assess understanding of intervention content (interviews)
Self-report on adequacy of communication methods used (questionnaire)