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Table 2 Percent change of charges associated with outpatient visits, emergency department visits, and inpatient admissions between the CPP and PCP cohorts

From: Advanced Practice Pharmacists: a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy and cost of ClinicaL Pharmacist PractitionErs managing ambulatory Medicare patients in North Carolina (APPLE-NC)

  % Change
Outpatient Visits
 Outpatient Visit Charges 22.6
 Charges per Visit −20.7
Emergency Department Visits
 Total Emergency Department Visits Charges −45.6
 Emergency Department charges related to HTN, DM, Pain 21.0
Inpatient Admissions
 Total Inpatient Charges −13.2
 Inpatient Charges related to HTN, DM, Pain 30.4
  1. Due to proprietary concerns regarding Medicare charges, percent change was used to show the difference in charges between the CPP and PCP cohorts. If the value in the table above is negative, then the CPP cohort variable is n% less than the PCP cohort variable. The converse is true for a positive number: the CPP cohort variable is n% more than the PCP cohort. For example, the CPP cohort resulted in 22.6 % higher outpatient visit charges and 20.7 % lower outpatient charges per visit than the PCP cohort
  2. \( \mathrm{Percent}\ \mathrm{C}\mathrm{hange} = \frac{\left(\mathrm{C}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{P}\ \mathrm{value}\ \hbox{--}\ \mathrm{P}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{P}\ \mathrm{value}\right)}{\left(\mathrm{C}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{P}\ \mathrm{value}\right)}\times 100 \)