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Table 9 Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models of health centre and client level factors associated with top quartile delivery of guideline-scheduled counselling or education (for smoking and alcohol risk reduction amongst high risk users) (N = 5496 clients, 162 health centres)

From: Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting

  Model A empty Model B adjusted Model C adjusted
  Fixed effects OR (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI)
Audit Year 2005/2006 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2007 3.30 (2.23–4.88)** 2.67 (1.77–4.03)** 2.80 (1.85–4.22)**
2008 2.32 (1.67–3.21)** 1.87 (1.31–2.67)** 1.96 (1.37–2.81)**
2009 2.33 (1.71–3.18)** 1.90 (1.34–2.69)** 1.96 (1.38–2.78)**
2010 2.21 (1.59–3.09)** 1.88 (1.30–2.74)** 1.90 (1.31–2.76)**
2011 2.25 (1.66–3.05)** 1.99 (1.41–2.82)** 2.01 (1.42–2.85)**
2012 2.25 (1.67–3.02)** 1.74 (1.19–2.54)** 1.75 (1.20–2.56)**
2013 2.76 (2.03–3.76)** 2.06 (1.39–3.06)** 2.07 (1.40–3.07)**
2014 2.41 (1.67–3.45)** 1.81 (1.15–2.86)* 1.82 (1.16–2.88)**
Health Centre Characteristics
Location X duration of CQI participation
 Non-remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.83 (1.29–2.59)** 1.78 (1.26–2.53)**
≥3 cycles   1.71 (1.01–2.89)* 1.64 (0.97–2.77)
 Remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   0.94 (0.65–1.35) 0.93 (0.65–1.35)
≥3 cycles   1.03 (0.61–1.75) 1.04 (0.62–1.76)
 Governance Community-Controlled   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Government operated   0.67 (0.50–0.91)* 0.69 (0.51–0.94)*
 Service population ≤500   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
501–999   0.92 (0.67–1.27) 0.92 (0.66–1.27)
≥1000   0.99 (0.74–1.34) 1.00 (0.74–1.35)
 % Clients attending in past 6 months <97 %   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥97 %   1.06 (0.90–1.26) 1.05 (0.88–1.24)
Client Characteristics
 Sex Male    1.00 (reference)
Female    1.00 (0.88–1.13)
 Age ≥15- < 25    1.00 (reference)
≥25- < 40    0.90 (0.57–1.42)
≥40- < 55    0.97 (0.62–1.53)
≥55    0.92 (0.58–1.45)
 Indigenous Status Non-Indigenous    1.00 (reference)
Indigenous    1.07 (0.76–1.51)
 Comorbidity None    1.00 (reference)
One or more    1.23 (1.06–1.43)**
 Disease severity No complications    1.00 (reference)
1–2 complications    1.10 (0.90–1.35)
>2 complications    1.17 (0.84–1.64)
Random effects (intercepts)
  State (variance (SE)) 0.01 (0.02) 0.00007 (0.001) 0.00008 (0.001)
MORSTATE 1.09 1.01 1.01
 PCV (% explained variance) - 99 % 99 %
 Health Centre (variance (SE)) 0.44 (0.08) 0.35 (0.07) 0.35 (0.07)
  MORHC 1.88 1.76 1.75
 PCV (% explained variance) - 20 % 21 %
 State & Health Centre (variance (SE)) 0.44 0.35 0.35
  MORSTATE-HC 1.89 1.76 1.75
 PCV (% explained variance) - 20 % 22 %
  Patient (variance (SE)) 1.11 (0.16) 1.13 (0.27) 0.97 (0.35)
  1. MOR (Median odds ratio): odds of receiving ‘top quartile’ service delivery if patient was to change health centre or jurisdiction; PCV (Proportional change in variance): percent variation explained in odds for better health care delivery by introduction of health centre or patient level factors
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p = <0.01
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