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Table 7 Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models of health centre and client level factors associated with top quartile delivery of guideline-scheduled specialist physical checks (N = 15,622 clients, 162 health centres)

From: Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting

  Model A empty Model B adjusted Model C adjusted
  Fixed effects OR (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI)
Audit Year 2005/2006 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2007 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 0.74 (0.60–0.91)** 0.75 (0.60–0.93)**
2008 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.78 (0.63–0.96)* 0.83 (0.67–1.03)
2009 1.26 (1.04–1.51)* 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 1.05 (0.84–1.32)
2010 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 0.86 (0.68–1.10)
2011 1.02 (0.85–1.21) 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.86 (0.67–1.09)
2012 1.29 (1.08–1.53)* 0.95 (0.73–1.24) 0.95 (0.72–1.25)
2013 1.64 (1.36–1.97)** 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 1.09 (0.82–1.46)
2014 1.65 (1.30–2.08)** 1.21 (0.87–1.68) 1.13 (0.81–1.57)
Health Centre Characteristics
Location X duration of CQI participation
 Non-remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.59 (1.32–1.91)** 1.53 (1.26–1.84)**
≥3 cycles   1.26 (0.93–1.71) 1.20 (0.88–1.65)
 Remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.24 (0.91–1.68) 1.36 (0.99–1.85)
≥3 cycles   1.55 (1.07–2.24)* 1.70 (1.16–2.47)**
 Governance Community-Controlled   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Government operated   0.89 (0.66–1.20) 0.93 (0.68–1.26)
 Service population ≤500   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
501–999   0.94 (0.70–1.26) 0.94 (0.70–1.27)
≥1000   0.86 (0.65–1.12) 0.86 (0.65–1.14)
 % Clients attending in past 6 months <97 %   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥97 %   1.47 (1.32–1.64)** 1.46 (1.31–1.62)**
Client Characteristics
 Sex Male    1.00 (reference)
Female    1.14 (1.06–1.23)**
 Age ≥15- < 25    1.00 (reference)
≥25- < 40    1.40 (1.07–1.83)*
≥40- < 55    1.92 (1.48–2.51)**
≥55    2.66 (2.04–3.47)**
 Indigenous Status Non-Indigenous    1.00 (reference)
Indigenous    1.23 (1.05–1.45)*
 Comorbidity None    1.00 (reference)
One or more    1.35 (1.24–1.47)**
 Disease severity No complications    1.00 (reference)
1–2 complications    2.34 (2.06–2.67)**
>2 complications    3.08 (2.45–3.88)**
Random effects (intercepts)
  State (variance (SE)) 0.36 (0.26) 0.18 (0.14) 0.18 (0.14)
MORSTATE 1.77 1.49 1.49
 PCV (% explained variance) - 49 % 51 %
 Health Centre (variance (SE)) 0.49 (0.07) 0.38 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06)
  MORHC 1.95 1.80 1.83
 PCV (% explained variance) - 23 % 19 %
 State & Health Centre (variance) 0.85 0.56 0.57
  MORSTATE-HC 2.41 2.03 2.06
 PCV (% explained variance) - 34 % 32 %
  Patient (variance (SE)) 1.21 (0.35) 1.00 (0.27) 0.26 (0.08)
  1. MOR (Median odds ratio): odds of receiving ‘top quartile’ service delivery if patient was to change health centre or jurisdiction; PCV (Proportional change in variance): percent variation explained in odds for better health care delivery by introduction of health centre or patient level factors
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p = <0.01