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Table 4 Coefficients of logit regression models for the frequencies of end-of-life practices

From: International changes in end-of-life practices over time: a systematic review

  1. Withholding or withdrawal of treatment 2.1 Use of opioids with possible life shortening effects 2.2 Use of sedatives with possible life shortening effects 3.1 Intentional use of lethal drugs self-dministered by patients under patient request 3.2 Intentional use of lethal drugs, administered by professionals under patient request 3.3 Intentional use of lethal drugs administered by professionals without patient voluntary request
   (95 % CI)    (95 % CI)    (95 % CI)    (95 % CI)    (95 % CI)    (95 % CI)  
Variables Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p Coefficients (2.5 % 97.5 %) p
Year −0.002 −0.003 −0.002 <0.001 0.044 0.043 0.045 <0.001 0.101 0.098 0.104 <0.001 −0.049 −0.056 −0.042 <0.001 0.016 0.014 0.018 <0.001 −0.057 −0.061 −0.053 <0.001
Survey types                         
Death certificates (reference)                        
Physicians 0.94 0.92 0.95 <0.001 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.58 0.55 0.60 <0.001 0.25 0.16 0.33 <0.001 0.00 −0.03 0.03 1.00 0.07 0.01 0.12 0.02
Prospective −0.14 −0.16 −0.12 <0.001 −0.17 −0.19 −0.15 <0.001      0.42 0.31 0.54 <0.001 0.29 0.24 0.33 <0.001 0.54 0.48 0.60 <0.001
Jurisdictions                         
Netherlands (reference)                        
Australia −0.39 −0.41 −0.37 <0.001 0.59 0.57 0.61 <0.001      −0.94 −1.13 −0.75 <0.001 −0.18 −0.22 −0.13 <0.001 1.59 1.54 1.65 <0.001
Belgium −0.20 −0.33 −0.06 <0.001 0.00 −0.11 0.11 0.98 0.13 −0.04 0.29 0.13          1.36 0.97 1.76 <0.001
Belgium (Flanders) −0.19 −0.20 −0.17 <0.001 −0.10 −0.11 −0.09 <0.001 0.44 0.42 0.46 <0.001 −0.17 −0.31 −0.02 0.03 −0.72 −0.77 −0.67 <0.001 1.59 1.55 1.64 <0.001
Denmark −0.34 −0.37 −0.32 <0.001 0.13 0.11 0.15 <0.001 −0.86 −0.92 −0.81 <0.001 −0.94 −1.28 −0.60 <0.001 −3.69 −4.03 −3.35 <0.001 0.29 0.19 0.40 <0.001
France 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.03 −0.09 −0.12 −0.07 <0.001                 
Italy −1.71 −1.77 −1.64 <0.001 −0.27 −0.31 −0.24 <0.001 0.42 0.37 0.47 <0.001 −15.08 −406.00 375.83 0.94 −4.08 −4.75 −3.42 <0.001 −2.16 −2.71 −1.60 <0.001
Sweden −0.34 −0.36 −0.32 <0.001 −0.15 −0.17 −0.13 <0.001 −0.61 −0.65 −0.57 <0.001 −15.08 −206.02 175.86 0.87 −14.83 −57.44 27.77 0.49 −0.78 −0.92 −0.64 <0.001
Switzerland (German- speaking) 0.53 0.51 0.55 <0.001 −0.09 −0.11 −0.07 <0.001 −0.19 −0.24 −0.14 <0.001 0.86 0.69 1.03 <0.001 −2.18 −2.36 −1.99 <0.001 −0.17 −0.33 −0.02 0.02
UK 3.28 1.57 4.99 <0.001 −0.41 −0.44 −0.38 <0.001 −204.15 −209.97 −198.32 <0.001 −15.08 −205.07 174.91 0.87 −2.57 −2.72 −2.42 <0.001 −0.26 −0.40 −0.13 <0.001