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Table 2 First Objective - Favorable risk selection in enrollment

From: The impact of the affordable care Act (ACA) on favorable risk selection and Beneficiaries’ health status in Medicare advantage: a preliminary assessment

Dependent Variable Focal Variablea Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
Effecte (SE) Effecte (SE) Effecte (SE)
Self-Rated Health (SRH) Secular Trend 0.002 (0.001) −0.005 (0.001)*** 0.008 (0.001)***
Policy Measure 0.020 (0.001)*** 0.014 (0.001)*** 0.003 (0.001)**
Falls Secular Trend 1.020 (0.002)*** 1.025 (0.002)*** 1.003 (0.003)
Policy Measure 0.976 (0.003)*** 0.975 (0.003)*** 0.981 (0.003)***
Balance Problems Secular Trend 1.022 (0.002)*** 1.032 (0.002)*** 0.994 (0.003)*
Policy Measure 0.984 (0.003)*** 0.986 (0.003)*** 1.006 (0.004)
Falls Management Secular Trend 1.043 (0.002)*** 1.057 (0.002)*** 1.044 (0.003)***
Policy Measure 1.006 (0.003)* 1.009 (0.003)** 1.040 (0.003)***
Frailty/disability Secular Trend 1.025 (0.001)*** 1.033 (0.001)*** 1.013 (0.002)***
Policy Measure 0.969 (0.002)*** 0.973 (0.002)*** 0.983 (0.002)***
Morbidity Score Secular Trend 1.011 (0.001)*** 1.013 (0.001)*** 1.008 (0.001)***
Policy Measure 0.983 (0.002)*** 0.985 (0.002)*** 0.989 (0.002)***
  1. Significance level: * p-value <0.05; ** p-value <0.01; *** p-value <0.001. Due to space limitations, only focal variables of interest were displayed. Complete tables including coefficients of all included variables are available upon request
  2. aSecular Trend is a time-dependent indicator that captures any temporal changes in the outcomes of interest over time between 2007 and 2013; Policy Measure is the policy implementation measure (PIM) which reflects the changes in MA reimbursement
  3. bModel 1 includes (i) secular trend variable and (ii) policy effect
  4. cModel 2 includes (i), (ii), and (iii) demographics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and marital status)
  5. dModel 3 includes (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) health status (SRH, falls, balance problems, falls management, frailty [when Balance is the DV, ADL score is calculated excluding walking disability component], and morbidity). A health status adjustor variable is not included when it is the DV
  6. eBeta Coefficient Effect for OLS predicting SRH; Adjusted Odds Ratio [OR = Exp (B)] predicting falls, balance problems and falls management; Incidence Risk Ratio [IRR = Exp (B)] for Negative Binomial Regression predicting frailty and morbidity