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Table 3 Research questions, methodological approach, data collection activity

From: Evaluating complex health financing interventions: using mixed methods to inform further implementation of a novel PBI intervention in rural Malawi

Research question divided by work package Approach Data collection
(a) Data collection instrument (b) Sampling unit (c) Data content
Quantitative Qualitativea
1. Service Provision. How has the intervention affected quality of service provided and why? Quant & Qual a. Structured Checklist; Data extraction lists for (i) routine surveillance databases (HMIS) and (ii) Service Provision Assessment (at baseline) a. IDIa& FGDa
b. Health facility (intervention and control) b. Clients, Community members
c. Primary and Secondary data c. Primary data
2. Provider Motivation. How has the intervention affected health worker motivation? Quant & Qual a. Health worker survey a. IDI
b. Health workers in intervention and control b. Health workers in intervention facilities
c. Primary and secondary data c. Primary data
3. Fidelity of Implementation.
 How has the intervention aligned with intended design, and what factors have affected this?
Qual -- a. IDI & Document Review
b. IDIs with MoH, Funders, PBI desk officers, DHMTs, SSDI employees, health workers in Intervention Facilities; Document Review of implementation planning and monitoring material
c. Primary and Secondary data
4. Costing. What are the costs of implementing the intervention in relation to outcomes produced? Quant a. Data Extraction --
b. Implementer materials (SSDI costing data)
c. Secondary data
  1. aMethods acronyms: IDI is in-depth interview, FGD is focus group discussion