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Table 2 Key reversals in participatory learning & action research methodology

From: Learning from doing: the case for combining normalisation process theory and participatory learning and action research methodology for primary healthcare implementation research

Reversal from… to
Assuming knowledge… exploring and exchanging complex ‘knowledges’
Hierarchical relationships among stakeholders… reciprocal and mutually empowering relationships
Viewing stakeholders as passive beneficiaries… viewing stakeholders as active partners and collaborators who benefit differentially from research outcomes
Viewing stakeholders as problem makers… to engaging with them as problem-solvers