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Table 1 Distribution of Patients and HCV risk

From: Hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diabetes mellitus in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Factor Positive to HCV Negative to HCV OR (95 % CI) X2 (P value)
  No % No %
Sex:       
 Malea 5 25.0 335 32.3 1.4 (0.5-4.0) 0.48 (0.49)
 Female 15 75.0 702 67.7
Marital status:       
 Married 20 100.0 949 91.5 0.98 (0.97-0.99) 1.85 (0.25)b
 Non marrieda 0 0.0 88 8.5
Employment:       
 Yesa 2 10.0 263 25.4 3.1 (0.7-13.3) 2.47 (0.088)b
 No 18 90.0 774 74.6
Type:       
 Type I 3 15. 0 79 7.6 2.1 (0.6-7.5) 1.49 (0.20)b
 Type IIa 17 85.0 958 92.4
Insulin Treatment:       
 Yes 13 65.0 380 36.6 3.2 (1.3-8.1) 6.76 (0.009)*
 Noa 7 35.0 657 63.4
Glycemic control status:      0.97 (0.4-2.5) 0.004 (0.950)
 Controlleda 13 65.0 667 64.3
 Uncontrolled 7 35.0 370 35.7
Duration of disease:       
 >5 years 17 85.0 826 60.6 3.7 (1.1-12.7) 4.93 (0.019)b*
5 yearsa 3 15.0 409 39.4
Hepatitis C partner:c( (n = 969)       
 Yes 1 5.0 30 3.2 1.6 (0.2-12.4) 0.214 (0.482)b
 Noa 19 95.0 919 96.8
Occupational exposure:       
 Yes 1 5.0 13 1.3 4.2 (0.5-33.3) 2.11 (0.236)b
 Noa 19 95.0 1024 98.7
Dental procedure:      0.9 (0.4-2.2) 0.061 (0.804)
 Yes 11 55.0 599 57.76
 Noa 9 45.0 438 42.24
Injection:      0.7 (0.1-5.5) 0.096 (1.000)b
 Yes 1 5.0 70 6.8
 Noa 19 95.0 967 93.2
IV Drug Use:      0.8 (0.1-6.3) 0.034 (1.000)b
 Yes 1 5.0 62 6.0
 Noa 19 95.0 975 94.0
Hospitalization:       
 Yes 19 95.0 847 81.7 4.3 (0.6-32.0) 2.352 (0.151)b
 Noa 1 5.00 190 18.3
Number of admissions:       
 0a 1 5.0 190 18.3   
 1–2 times 8 40.0 675 65.1 2.3 (0.3-18.1) 0.614(0.692)
 3–4 times 7 35.0 116 11.2 11.5 (1.4-94.4) 8.047 (0.007)*
 5+ times 4 20.0 56 5.4 13.6 (1.5-123.9) 8.825 (0.012)*
Surgery:       
 Yes 17 85.0 683 65.9 2.9 (0.9-10.1) 3.21 (0.094)b
 Noa 3 15.0 354 34.1
Number of operations:       
 0a 3 15.0 354 34.1 2.40 (0.7-8.5) 1.97(0.195)
 1–2 times 13 65.0 639 61.6 8.6 (1.7-44.2) 9.50(0.020)*
 3–4 times 3 15.0 41 4.0 39.3 (3.1-495.0) 21.07 (0.044)*
 5+ times 1 5.0 3 0.3   
Abortion:d(n–646)       
 Yes 9 69.2 314 49.6 2.3 (0.7-7.5) 1.96 (0.262)
 Noa 5 30.8 319 50.4
Blood Transfusion:       
 Yes 9 45.0 176 17.0 4.0 (1.6-9.8) 10.68 (0.001)*
 Noa 11 55.0 861 83.0
Sharing personal items:       
 Yes 3 15.0 21 2.0 8.5 (2.3-31.4) 14.89 (0.009)b*
 Noa 17 85.0 1016 98.0
Tattoo:       
 Yes 2 10.0 17 1.6   
 Noa 18 90.0 1020 98.4 6. 7 (1.4-31.0) 7.77 (0.048)b*
Liver disease:       
 Yes 7 35.0 28 2.7 19.4 (7.2-52.4) 63.94 (<0.001)*
 Noa 13 65.0 1009 97.3
Elevated liver enzymes: (n = 1015)       
 Yes 8 40.0 51 5.1 12.3 (4.8-31.5) 43.55 (<0.001)*
 Noa 12 60.0 944 94.9
Positive US finding:(n = 210)       
 Yes 1 16.7 104 51.0 0.2 (0.02-1.7) 2.75 (0. 212)b
 No a 5 83.3 100 49.0
Elevated creatinine: (n = 1024)       
 Yes 3 15.8 81 8.1 2.1 (0.6-7.5) 1.48 (0.200)b
 Noa 16 84.2 924 91.9
Dialysis:       
 Yes 1 5.0 7 0.7 7.7 (0.9-66.1) 4.89 (0.142)b
 Noa 19 95.0 1030 99.3
Total 20 100 1037 100   
  1. aReference category
  2. bExact test
  3. cCalculated for married (n = 969)
  4. dEach category was tested against reference category; Calculated for females (n = 646); *Statistically significant