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Table 2 Change in outcome variables from baseline

From: Management of hypertension and multiple risk factors to enhance cardiovascular health - a feasibility study in Singapore polyclinics

Variables Intervention group Within-group p-value No Intervention group Within-group p-value Between-group p-value
  (n = 50)   (n = 50)   
Healthy Lifestyle Index, mean (SD)a
 Baseline 2.1 (0.99)   2.4 (1.03)   
 Final 2.3 (1.04) 0.43 2.2 (0.89) 0.35  
 Change 0.16 (0.68)   −0.18 (0.75)   0.02*
Healthy Lifestyle Index, median (IQR)a
 Baseline 2 (1, 3)   2 (2, 3)   
 Final 2 (2, 3) 0.54 2 (2, 3) 0.48  
 Change 0 (0, 0)   0 (−1, 0)   0.01*
Anti-hypertensive medication adherence
PDC (any medication class)b,c, % 95.27   83.78   <0.01*
PDC (all medication classes)b,c, % 92.05   84.47   0.03*
Mean Systolic blood pressure (> = 140 mmHg), mean (SD)
 Baseline 158.0 (11.9) <0.001* 160.66 (15.7) <0.001*  
 Finald 142.79 (13.3) 140.17 (12.9)  
 Adjusted change mm Hg, mean (95%CI)e −17.58 (−24.06 to −11.11) −18.99 (−25.88 to −12.09) 0.58
Mean Diastolic blood pressure (> = 90 mmHg), mean (SD)
 Baseline 94.6 (5.7) <0.001* 96.86 (11.5) <0.001*  
 Finald 80.82 (11.7) 86.86 (10.5)  
 Adjusted change mm Hg, mean (95%CI)e −15.6 (−20.85 to −10.35) −12.93 (−18.48 to −7.37) 0.19
  1. PDC proportion of days covered
  2. *Statistically significant
  3. aHealthy Lifestyle Index is a cumulative score of 5 variables; BMI, Physical activity, Dietary habit, Dietary quality and Smoking (Additional file 2)
  4. bPDC = (Total number of days’ supply of medication dispensed/length of corresponding follow-up) x 100
  5. Ref. Mazzaglia G, Ambrosioni E, Alacqua M, Filippi A, Sessa E, Immordino V, Borghi C, Brignoli O, Caputi AP, Cricelli C, Mantovani LG. Adherence to antihypertensive medications and cardiovascular morbidity among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Circulation. 2009;120:1598–1605
  6. cAdjusted for age and gender
  7. dMissing data was imputed by using the mean values of final
  8. eAdjusted for age, gender, house ownership, diabetes and baseline values