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Table 4 Characteristics of caregivers at meals and persons residing with patients

From: Analysis of resources assisting in coping with swallowing difficulties for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study

  Presence of caregivers at meals Persons residing with participants (patients)
  Yes n = 36 No n = 201 p value Child only n = 32 Presence of child n = 80 Spouse only n = 112 p value
Age (years) 73.9 ± 6.8 70.9 ± 8.5 0.0217* 77.7 ± 6.2 a, b 71.0 . ± 8.6 a 70.8 ± 7.0 b a: p = 0.0004*; b: p < 0.0001*
PD duration (years) 12.1 ± 7.8 7.6 ± 6.1 0.0022* 10.7 ± 9.3 7.8 ± 5.4 8.0 ± 5.8 ns
Score of SD 12.4 ± 9.5 6.9 ± 7.8 0.0019* 9.2 ± 8.8 7.6 ± 7.8 8.7 ± 9.1 ns
Modification score 1.7 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.6 0.0028* 1.5 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.7 ns
Modified H&Y scale 6.4 ± 1.2 4.3 ± 1.4 <0.0001* 5.1 ± 1.3 c, d 4.4 ± 1.4 c 4.5 ± 1.4 d c: p = 0.030*; d: p = 0.039*
BMI 21.3 ± 3.6 22.5 ± 3.6 ns 21.9 ± 4.1 22.3 ± 3.7 22.5 ± 3.5 ns
Goodness of fit for Presence of caregivers at meals n = 36 Child only n = 32 Presence of child n = 80 Spouse only n = 112  
Use of dietary modifications OR: 6.8, CI: 3.1-15.2, p < 0.0001* ns OR: 3.4, CI: 1.2-11.4, p = 0.024* ns  
Use of care foods ns ns OR: 0.2, CI: 0.03-0.82, p = 0.025* ns  
  1. “Presence of child” means the number of patients residing with child(ren) plus that residing with child(ren) and spouse. *: significant, ns: non-significant
  2. a, b, c and d show values where statistical significance as per the p values in the very right hand column is reached